I posted my mom’s pie crust recipe at Reply 13 http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php/topic,19002.msg185689.html#msg185689 and my mom’s recipe was modified a little from a Betty Crocker recipe and might be like ones that you have looked at recently. That seems to be a lot of vegetable oil for the amount of flour to me.
Your mother's pie crust recipe that you referenced essentially looks like this from a baker's percent standpoint, although the actual baker's percents will depend on how the flour is measured out volumetrically:
|All-Purpose Flour (100%):|
Crisco Oil (42.72%):
|255.13 g | 9 oz | 0.56 lbs|
73.94 g | 2.61 oz | 0.16 lbs
2.81 g | 0.1 oz | 0.01 lbs | 0.5 tsp | 0.17 tbsp
108.99 g | 3.84 oz | 0.24 lbs | 8 tbsp | 0.5 cups
440.87 g | 15.55 oz | 0.97 lbs | TF = N/A
If one were to play around with the above hydration and oil amounts, and add some yeast and double the amount of salt, you would essentially have an HRI type of dough. Unfortunately, there is no way of calculating the hydration of the HRI dough used to make their frozen pizzas. In part, I believe that that is because there is an error in the HRI Nutrition Facts. If I am correct on this, it could be that that error was used to do other calculations that are now reflected in the Nutrition Facts.
In Loo’s opening post at http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php/topic,6112.0.html and from the Nutrition Facts of an HRI pizza the yeast is listed above the salt and you recently I think posted that more than 2% IDY could be used. I just wonder then how the dough could be cold fermented for 2-3 days in the HRI pizzerias, without multiple punch downs, unless they keep the dough really cold, or the oil helps to retard the dough.
As you know, until recently, I assumed that HRI cold fermented the dough that it uses for its frozen pizzas. Now, I am not so sure. For example, if you look at the article about the HRI frozen pizza oprations at http://www.bsimagazine.com/Features/Company%20Profiles/US%20Archive/At%20its%20new%20plant%20Home%20Run%20Inn%20makes%20frozen%20pizza%20the%20pizzaria%20way.aspx?p=1&cck=1
, you will see the following description of how HRI made its dough at that time (around 1996):After mixing, the pizza dough is allowed to ferment in tubs containing 40-lb batches. The company likes the unique flavor that natural fermentation produces. Tubs are cleaned and sanitized between batches.
“Our dough is given the time to develop flavor naturally,” Mr. Perrino said. “No additives are used to speed up the process. We follow ‘old world' methods that rely on time and natural fermentation.”
After the proper amount of floor time, the dough is dumped into a Benier bread system that divides and rounds individual dough pieces and puts them through a period of intermediate proofing. From the proofer, the dough balls travel along an overhead delivery conveyor into the pressing room. A chute sends the balls to a shallow bin, and an operator manually places the balls on the conveyor leading to the presses. Company engineers are working on an automatic placement system to be installed later.
Dough balls travel through one of two hot crust presses. When Home Run Inn first automated its pizza crust process in 1990, it switched from manual stretching to hot press processing and achieved a threefold increase in throughput. The dough is formed in the cavity of the press and enough heat is applied to “set” the shape. The company anticipates installing a third press within a few months.
Formed crusts then leave the presses and enter a impingement-style forced-air oven. A short bake stabilizes the crust, which is still warm as it continues into the topping room. Here a series of depositors, custom-configured into three lanes, apply the proper proportions of sauce, cheese, sausage and other condiments. Operators stand alongside the topping lanes to visually inspect each pizza for proper coverage.
Conveyors carry the pizzas into the oven room where a U.S.D.A.-compliant, all-stainless-steel Stein JSO III Jet Stream oven fully cooks each pizza.
Pizzas emerge from the oven hot, at temperatures around 165°F (74°C).
As I read the above quoted material, I conclude that the fermentation is an ambient temperature fermentation, not a cold fermentation.
Now, if we fast forward to the latest article we know of that describes what appears to be the current HRI frozen pizza operations, at http://digital.bnpmedia.com/publication/?i=37488&p=14
, you will see a discussion at pages 24 and 26 (of the article) that essentially describes the dough management as follows: 1) Make the dough as described at page 26, 2) put the dough into to the dough chunker to form 40-lb blocks, 3) divide the dough into pieces and form them into round balls, 4) manually check the weights of the dough balls, 5) rack the dough balls, and 6) form the dough balls into skins using the dough presses.
Where is the fermentation step(s)? We really don't know. Maybe it is between steps 5 and 6 described above. And I believe docking takes place after step 6.
Now, to answer your specific question about how HRI manages its dough in its pizzerias with the high amounts of yeast as we have been discussing, it is possible that HRI uses less yeast for the dough for its pizzerias than it uses to make its frozen dough. I'm not sure where I read it, but I believe that the dough for the HRI pizzerias is made at a facility that is separate from the frozen pizza facilities (although the frozen pizza facilities make the sauce and processes the cheese and sausage for the entire HRI operations, including the pizzerias). However, even if I am wrong about the amount of yeast used for the dough for the HRI pizzerias, my cold fermentation tests show that even with 2.5% IDY, the dough during cold fermentation does not explode out of its storage container. The dough will rise fairly quickly as it cools down in the refrigerator, and may even double or triple in volume (after about 8 hours in my refrigerator), after about a day of cold fermentation everything comes to a halt, and the dough no longer rises and just sits there. I believe that the high amount of oil is at least partly responsible for the orderly behavior of the dough. The dough is firm to the touch, not soft and billowy that it tempts you to want to punch it down. You can read more about how the dough is handled in HRI's pizzerias in the article excerpted at Reply 6 at http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php/topic,6009.msg51590.html#msg51590