Is it possible that it's because I left the lid on the mixer when I was mixing it and it created too much humidity/moisture in the dough?
I just tried a new batch and it looked much, much better even after 5 minutes of mixing. It wasn't sticky and didn't ride up on the center bar of the bowl. I went back to my original receipt and ended up mixing 15 minutes and it was a nice ball when I was done. Not smooth yet, but at least it was a ball. I'm letting it rest now to see how it smoothes up.
As far as opening up one of the dough balls I made last night, I can't believe it, but there was no difference in this batch and the previous batches from my old workflow. After two hours on the counter (from the fridge), it was a breeze to stretch and form into a nice big crust!
Now I'm really confused. :-(