Author Topic: Experiment: Long, cold fermentation for GF dough  (Read 3652 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline plainslicer

  • Registered User
  • Posts: 74
  • Location: DC
Experiment: Long, cold fermentation for GF dough
« on: January 29, 2011, 03:57:12 PM »
Hello everyone,

I long/cold-ferment my regular doughs and like the effects it has on taste and dough character. There's been a lot of interesting experimentation on that front and I wanted to see if the same effects happened to a gluten-free dough. So, last Saturday I made a batch of a simple gluten-free dough using some GF AP flour I had left over.

347g King Arthur GF AP flour
242g water (70% hydration)
10g salt
5g xanthan gum
3g ADY

I barely proofed the ADY; I poured it into the water in my DLX mixer and let it dissolve. The temperature after dissolving was 68F. I mixed for a few minutes until it was smooth, which took longer than it should have because of the way I mixed in the xanthan gum. I added it directly to the water, which just made it congeal into a few blobs instead of dissolving as I figured it would. Instead, I think you have to whisk it into the flour before mixing. I think it eventually mixed into the flour, but I can't be sure.

The 70% hydration dough was firm enough that I could ball it. I made 3x195g balls and put them into plastic containers straight into the fridge. I think I used too much yeast, and the containers smelled strongly every time I opened them up to "burp" them in the fridge. Since there is no gluten structure there's no real risk of overblowing the dough that I'm aware of.

The plan originally was to test at 1, 3 and 5 days. It ended up being 1, 3 and 7 due to lack of free time. On all three days I took the dough container out of the fridge, let it rest inside the container for 30 minutes then flattened into a disc on a floured peel (same type of flour). With wet hands it was easy to spread it out, though you have to be a lot more gentle than with a gluten dough. There's no gluten structure so it'd probably be OK to roll it out, but I don't have a pin so I did it by hand.

I then covered the disc with plastic wrap and let it sit for 2 hours in the kitchen while the oven heated at 550F. The kitchen gets hot when the oven is on, and the dough was around 80 degrees while it was resting. Inside the oven I had a Fibrament stone in the top rack. I baked for 10 minutes at 550. They puffed up like pita bread on all three bakes.

The differences in browning, hue and to a lesser degree taste were quite prominent. On day 1, the baked crust tasted very strongly of rice (the primary ingredient in the GF AP flour is rice flour) and like a gluten dough had no real depth of flavor to it. It's hard to gauge the changes in taste when you have an expectation of what's going to happen, but I'm fairly confident the rice flavor lessened over the next few days while it developed more flavor. Day 3 had very different coloration and baked smoother on top, probably due to the way I handled it. Interestingly it developed blisters on the bottom. The same happened on day 7 although I had more flour on the bottom that masked the blisters. I had way too much salt in the dough, but it at least brought out all the flavors.

The texture was about the same on all three days. No surprise there. It was crisp on the outside and chewy on the inside--surprisingly pleasant. With a little less salt this dough could probably make a decent pizza. When I try this I will do a 7 day fermentation if time permits. One advantage of this dough as opposed to most GF dough recipes is that it is firm enough that I think you can bake it with the sauce and cheese already on. I'll have to try that later.

Overall the differences aren't as dramatic as with a gluten dough, but I'd say it's worth the wait for the better flavor and coloring. Gluten-free doughs don't have all that much flavor, so any bit of good flavor you can extract out of it is a good thing.

The first picture is a dough ball right before going into the fridge. The rest are of day 1--sorry for the blur; I'm borrowing this camera and didn't think to use a macro mode until later.
« Last Edit: January 29, 2011, 04:01:37 PM by plainslicer »


Offline plainslicer

  • Registered User
  • Posts: 74
  • Location: DC
Re: Experiment: Long, cold fermentation for GF dough
« Reply #1 on: January 29, 2011, 03:57:51 PM »
Day 3. The char contributed nicely to the flavor.
« Last Edit: January 29, 2011, 04:02:07 PM by plainslicer »

Offline plainslicer

  • Registered User
  • Posts: 74
  • Location: DC
Re: Experiment: Long, cold fermentation for GF dough
« Reply #2 on: January 29, 2011, 03:59:02 PM »
Day 7. I wonder if putting sauce on top will weigh it down enough such that it stays flat.

Offline canadave

  • Supporting Member
  • *
  • Posts: 666
  • Age: 43
  • Location: Beach Meadows, NS, Canada, Earth
Re: Experiment: Long, cold fermentation for GF dough
« Reply #3 on: January 29, 2011, 09:48:06 PM »
Wow!

Thank you, thank you, THANK YOU for taking the time and effort to not only experiment, but document your findings so thoroughly.  This is a wonderful post.

A number of questions come to my mind--

1.  Is there any way to experiment with "home created" GF flours rather than the King Arthur GF flour?  I ask this because I don't believe the KA flour is available in Canada and there's no way to ship here, so I'd imagine it's the same for other regions as well; it would be great to have a similar home concoction that might work similarly.

2.  Is there a way to prevent the "pita-like" separation of the bottom and top of the dough, I wonder?  Not a deal-breaker if the overall pizza turns out fine, of course, but generally I guess a typical pizza wouldn't have that separation.

3.  Did you totally manage to avoid sticking to the peel, particularly with the hydration at 70%?  I see you said you just floured the peel...I can't imagine most GF doughs being able to avoid sticking, even with a well-floured peel, because they tend to be quite wet AND sticky.  This must be quite the dough if all it took to avoid sticking was some flour on the peel!  :o

Anyway, thank you again so much, this is great stuff.  Looking forward to reading about future experiments!

Offline plainslicer

  • Registered User
  • Posts: 74
  • Location: DC
Re: Experiment: Long, cold fermentation for GF dough
« Reply #4 on: January 30, 2011, 04:06:08 PM »
Hi Dave, thanks for the kind words.

As for your questions,

1. Sure, I don't see why not. King Arthur has a mix that they suggest in their gluten-free recipes if for whatever reason you can't use their pre-mixed AP. I could use that, or another if you have one in mind. This is theirs:

Quote
Whisk together 6 cups (32 ounces) King Arthur stabilized brown rice flour; 2 cups (10 3/4 ounces) potato starch; and 1 cup (4 ounces) tapioca flour or tapioca starch. Store airtight at room temperature. Note: You can substitute white rice flour for the brown rice flour if you like; it'll make your baked goods grittier (unless you manage to find a finely ground version).

They say the stabilized brown rice flour is better than regular brown rice flour. I don't know what that means, or if you can find that in Canada.

2. I would imagine the separation came from there not being anything on top. I had the same thing happen when I tried to bake one of my gluten doughs without toppings, but when I used another ball from the same dough and topped it normally it only puffed up on the outer edges. If I could somehow get the gluten-free dough to puff up on the edges that'd probably make for a much nicer look.

You can see I tried to do that a bit on the 7th day, when I didn't press on the outer edges and tried to spread out from the center.

3. Yeah, it really only took a well-floured peel. I had some sticking on the first and last days, which required me to partially reball and start over. Since it's GF dough and I let it rise flat for two hours after that I don't see the harm in reballing at that stage. On the 3rd day I used a bit more flour on the bottom than I did the other days and that helped to keep it from sticking when I let it out of the plastic container. I have a standard wooden peel, nothing fancy. I wonder if it's something in the KA flour that helps.

edit: revising what I said above, on the days I had to reball, after doing so and flattening out I was able to slide them around the peel. After the two hour rise it loosened up nicely after a quick shake around.

NB: my kitchen scale has an interesting interpretation on accuracy, so the 70% might not be exactly that. I measured everything on the same scale but I'm not sure the inaccuracy is linear.

Unfortunately I won't be able to try any of this out until mid-February or so, as I'll be out of town for a while. I really want to get on with further experiments, as this always turns out to be a lot of fun.
« Last Edit: January 31, 2011, 01:20:21 PM by plainslicer »

Offline plainslicer

  • Registered User
  • Posts: 74
  • Location: DC
Re: Experiment: Long, cold fermentation for GF dough
« Reply #5 on: March 07, 2011, 08:14:14 AM »
canadave, I was looking at King Arthur's website this morning and saw a new 'Ships to Canada' badge on the gluten-free flours section of the online store. I think it's new, since it's pretty hard to miss.

http://www.kingarthurflour.com/shop/items/gluten-free-multi-purpose-flour

I tried making a dough this weekend with Bob's Red Mill GF AP and it was just awful... I can't imagine that beany taste subsiding through a simple cold ferment. So, at the moment I'm back to King Arthur.

Also, last night while looking at some Italian YouTube videos I was rather impressed by how well this dough handled:



It's made with a mixture of Schar Mix B and an Italian product called DS Mix It. Mix B is sold in the US (and Canada, according to them) as Schar White Bread Mix. DS isn't available outside of Italy as far as I can tell. It's interesting that these Italian AP flours I've seen include gums and emulsifiers, which given their use for pasta and pizza makes a lot of sense.

Offline canadave

  • Supporting Member
  • *
  • Posts: 666
  • Age: 43
  • Location: Beach Meadows, NS, Canada, Earth
Re: Experiment: Long, cold fermentation for GF dough
« Reply #6 on: March 21, 2011, 07:34:49 PM »
Hey there, sorry for the late reply; I thought I had my email settings here set to automatically notify me of replies, but I guess that's not working.

Yes, that KA "ship to Canada" button must be new--I hadn't seen it before.  I was all excited to order their GF pizza crust mix, but then I saw the shipping cost--$24.50 to ship a single box that costs $6.95!! :(  That's just insane.  I may wind up ordering a box just to try it, because I do wind up visiting the States now and then, but that's just prohibitively expensive unless I order a ton of boxes.

As for the YouTube video--wow...that looks AMAZING.  Too bad the ingredients aren't all available!  I'll have to keep an eye out...I know that Schar Mix B isn't available anywhere remotely near me, for sure.  But if I can ever snag some, you never know what might happen ;)

cheers for the links!


 

pizzapan