There's a common misconception that fermentation = volume and that too much volume equals overproofing/overfermentation. This is not the case. You can add a lot of yeast to a dough and have it blow up to a point of failure/deflation, all within a few hours, but this dough will still be completely viable and far from overfermented. Fermentation is yeast activity AND enzyme activity. Yeast breaks down dough a little bit, but it's the enzymes that are the major players in dough destruction/overfermentation. Overfermented dough is dough that has atrophied to a point where the protein no longer has the ability to support the structure and the volume diminishes.
There's a huge difference between dough that expands so much from CO2 that it pops and dough that's deflated from enzyme atrophy. CO2 formation is relatively meaningless. In the breadmaking world, doughs are manually de-gassed/deflated (punched down) all the time. Ideally, you'll use just enough yeast for one single rise within your desired fermentation time frame, but if you use too much yeast or the environment results in too much yeast activity, the dough will still be viable. If it's just a single large blown bubble, then the dough should be able to be used as is. If it's completely deflated, then a punch down/second rise might be necessary.
Enzyme activity/atrophy is primarily a component of time and is encouraged in long cold ferments. Water activity also encourages enzyme activity so wetter doughs will atrophy faster. Enzymes also seem to degrade weaker flours faster than stronger ones, so a 14% protein flour based dough will be viable longer than a mid range protein flour. Generally speaking, though, unless you're dealing with abnormally high hydration, high elevation or exceptionally weak or inferior flour (rarely found in the U.S.), one can ferment a dough two days without overfermentation concerns.