Just to add a question
When I mix a 65% hydration dough with 00 Caputo flour, the end dough balls are very loose and cant be slapped into a disc.
I mix for 20 minutes with 2 resting periods, bench rest for 2 hours, ferment in a wine cellar at 58 drg for 2 days, form the balls and let the rest for 4-5 hours and then disc them. They are so loose that I can slap stretch them maybe 3-4 times and often get a few very small holes.
Dear Joel, here is a suggestion for preparing 65%-hydration dough using your Santos fork mixer, Caputo Pizzeria '00', fresh yeast, two intervallic rest periods, and 22 hours of fermentation at controlled room temperature. First, I would like to briefly make some preliminary remarks. Indeed, as you mentioned before, "Santos . . . handles dough differently than the planetary mixers." Furthermore, I add that Santos, also, handles dough differently than a professional fork mixer such as those manufactured by Pietroberto or Mecnosud. Inasmuch as the dough capacity of Santos is much lower and its fork speed way faster than a professional fork mixer, it intensifies the process of dough mixing and kneading. Dough development happens much, much faster; therefore, one ought to be heedful as to when enough is enough.
Moreover, as you must have found out by now, Santos is not an autopilot type of mixer. One needs to proactively intervene in its operations during mixing and kneading. As a general rule, less manual intervention is needed with larger dough batch and higher hydration. Conversely, more interference is needed as the dough hydration and batch size are decreased. Since the dough capacity of Santos is low in relation to professional fork mixers, the dough is not massive or heavy enough to collapse back on itself after being lifted by the speedy fork. As a result, the dough keeps attaching itself against the walls of the mixer, not getting kneaded properly. In my experience, more dough hydration (for example, 61% or higher if using Caputo Pizzeria '00' flour), in conjunction with using at least 1000 grams or more flour (the more, the better), can alleviate this problem to a degree. A more voluminous and high-hydration dough is heavier, more flexible, and less stiff; therefore, it is more likely to synchronize itself with the mixer's pulse and rhythm, resulting in a better kneaded and more uniform dough. Fortunately, it is possible to make good dough with Santos, which takes plenty of practice and attentiveness in order to gain the needed skills. The mixer definitely has some great qualities and features that make it more desirable to me than my Kitchen Aid Professional 620.
Considering the above, I believe that 20 minutes of mixing is too excessive and intensive for the purpose of making Neapolitan dough with Santos. My presumption is that, after 20 minutes of kneading your 65% hydration Caputo Pizzeria dough, the gluten film becomes too thin and extensive (vulnerable to tearing), later on bringing about a dough maturation that, according to professor Raymond Calvel, is "artificial". Per professor Calvel:"The process of dough maturation is thus linked, through the degree of development of the gluten network, to the level of oxidation reached in the mixing process. Furthermore, as the mechanical development and oxidation of the dough increase together [in an 'intensive mixing' session], the process of dough maturation will accelerate over time.
Conversely, whenever the mechanical development of the gluten network and oxidation diminish as a result of a decrease in the level of mixing [such as in 'traditional mixing'], it becomes necessary to lengthen the maturation period to obtain adequate development of the gluten network. Just as in the old days of slow mixing, this maturation is accomplished by alcoholic fermentation and the dough-rise effect that results from it. . . . the strength of the dough [i.e. the gluten network] absolutely must be corrected if the appropriate degree of maturation is to be reached.
When mixing intensely is limited (i.e., slow mixing with moderate mechanical working of the dough), the maturation is practically nonexistent. Alcoholic fermentation will be needed to complete the maturation, so bakers should schedule a relatively long primary fermentation stage, as was done before the 1955-1960 period, to achieve a natural maturation of the dough. . . .
In conclusion, it is vitally important to avoid over-mixing and the accompanying bleaching and tendency toward artificial maturation of dough. It is equally necessary to allow fermentation to play its very own fundamental and varied role. . . .
We have already seen that maturation affects the physical properties of dough. Barring some type of unforeseen problem, the degree of cohesiveness increases and dough extensibility decreases while dough maturation progresses. When forming or molding of the unbaked loaves is carried out (after dough division and the rest period), dough maturation should arrive at a certain equilibrium between its opposing qualities of extensibility and cohesiveness."
The following is how I would utilize the Santos dough mixer if I were to prepare Caputo Pizzeria dough, using 65% hydration (which is a bit high), fresh yeast, two intervallic rest periods, and a total of 22 hours of fermentation (instead of 2 days & plus) at controlled room temperature. I actually made the dough yesterday morning and shot some pictures, shown hereunder. Using the pictures, I will try to provide you with as much details as time allows me. Naturally, your circumstances may require you to make certain modifications.
Flour: 1400 Caputo Pizzeria "00" (Datum Point)
Water: 910 gr. (65%)
Sea Salt: 41 gr. (2.93%)
Fresh Yeast: 1.30 gr. (0.092%)
Dough Mixer: Santos Fork Mixer
Duration of mixing & Kneading: 4 minutes & 16 seconds
Using the direct method of dough production: Water (75.4ᵒF) ➞ Salt ➞ Fresh Yeast ➞ Flour (68.9ᵒF) = Dough (74.6ᵒF) [Room Temp. 71ᵒF]
Dough ball weight: 250 to 260 grams each
Duration of the initial fermentation: 2 hours at room temperature (70-71ᵒF)
Duration of the final fermentation: 20 hours inside the marble chamber (65ᵒF)
Picture 1: The flour to be used for preparing the dough is at 68.9ᵒF, which will have a bearing on the final dough temperature that I desire.
Picture 2: I poured all the water in the mixer bowl. Considering my final dough temperature, I brought the water temperature to 75.4ᵒF.
Picture 3: All the sea salt is added to the water in the mixer bowl.
Picture 4: Using a frother, I both dissolved the salt and aerated the water in the mixer bowl.
Picture 5: At this point, the salt-water temperature reached 73.2ᵒF while the room temperature was 71ᵒF.
Picture 6: Holding the fresh yeast between my fingers, I dissolved it in the salt-water by rubbing my thumb against my fingers.
Picture 7: Using a rubber spatula, I stirred the salt-yeast-water solution, dispersing all the yeast.
Picture 8: I poured all the flour in the mixer bowl.
Picture 9: Using the Santos, I mixed the ingredients for 1 minute and 6 seconds (while regulating the rotation of the mixer bowl with my left hand and guiding the mixture with the rubber spatula in my right hand) until the dough ingredients were just incorporated without being kneaded.
Picture 10: After 1 minute and 6 seconds of mixing, the dough mass obviously had a rough texture. I let it rest, while covered, for 10 minutes. One function of this rest period is that it prepares the dough for more effective and uniform kneading as the dough has a chance to absorb the hydration and, hence, loosen up. (This is not to be confused with the classic "autolyse".)
Picture 11: After the rest period, I resumed kneading the dough mass for only 1 minute (while regulating the rotation of the mixer bowl with my left hand and guiding the dough with the rubber spatula in my right hand). Naturally, the dough mass was more conducive to uniform kneading than if I had foregone the preceding rest period.
Picture 12: After 1 minute of kneading, I let the dough mass repose again, while covered, for 10 minutes. Scrutinizing the dough mass closely, I could feel the presence of subtle moisture, not water, on the dough surface, indicating that it was not kneaded enough to absorb the hydration enough.
Picture 13 & 14: After 10 minutes of repose, I resumed kneading for 2 minutes and 10 seconds (while regulating the rotation of the mixer bowl with my left hand and guiding the dough with the rubber spatula in my right hand) until the dough mass:
a. Became homogenous, up to a degree, in terms of constitution and texture;
b. Reached a degree of consistency (i.e., an agreement, coherence, or uniformity throughout the dough mass) that could be visibly and tactilely perceived;
c. Possessed a degree of structure of its own, rather than being amorphous (i.e., lacking organization and form);
d. Reached a relative skin formation, being encompassed by or embodied in its own skin. (At this point, the dough mass stopped readily grabbing the walls of the mixer bowl and held its own dough flesh within its own dough skin. It developed enough structural stability.);
e. Reached my desired point of pasta:
1. A degree
2. A degree
3. A degree
of extensibility, and
4. A degree
of gluten film development.
Picture 15: Here's the final dough resting inside the bowl for 20 minutes. After a total of 4 minutes and 16 seconds of mixing and kneading, the dough reached 74.8ᵒF while I had targeted 73ᵒF. Close enough!
Picture 16: After 20 minutes of rest, the dough reached 74.4ᵒF.
Picture 17 & 18: Next, I placed the dough on the marble-top and examined it for further development of the point of pasta. The dough appeared to have enough strength to be carried out toward slow maturation.
Picture 19: I formed the dough mass into a dough ball, letting it undergo the initial fermentation for 2 hours at room temperature (70-71ᵒF).
Picture 20: The dough mass reached 72.8ᵒF after 2 hours of the initial fermentation.
Picture 21: Next, dough balls were formed and ready to undergo the final fermentation for 20 hours at 65ᵒF.
Picture 22: At last, here are the dough balls after 20 hours of fermentation.
This morning, I tried to prime my wood-fired oven to turn the dough balls into pizzas; however, I had to abort the operation, again, because of my neighbors. If time allows, I will use Bruno's Ferrara oven to bake them. Good night!