Author Topic: Glossary  (Read 8557 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline Steve

  • Steve Zinski
  • Administrator
  • *
  • Posts: 1950
  • Age: 51
  • Location: Richmond, VA
    • pizzamaking.com
Glossary
« on: June 09, 2005, 11:17:12 AM »
JimBob suggested that I put together a Glossary of Terms for the main website. I think it's an excellent idea.

Let's use this thread to post terms that should be in the glossary, then I'll compile them into a list and put them on the main website.
Pizzamaking.com is a member-supported public resource. Click HERE to become a Supporting Member.


Offline JimBob

  • Supporting Member
  • *
  • Posts: 87
  • Age: 47
  • Location: Ohio
  • I Love Pizza!
Re: Glossary
« Reply #1 on: June 09, 2005, 11:21:49 AM »
autolyse

preferment

DOC standards

fermentation

IDY

ADY

retarded dough

« Last Edit: June 09, 2005, 11:28:40 AM by JimBob »
JimBob

Offline JimBob

  • Supporting Member
  • *
  • Posts: 87
  • Age: 47
  • Location: Ohio
  • I Love Pizza!
Re: Glossary
« Reply #2 on: June 09, 2005, 12:01:22 PM »

Protein. Looking at just the protein levels, one might think that the two flours are fairly similar. However, protein levels alone don't tell much about the type and quality of protein or gluten. It's possible for two flours to have similar protein levels and behave quite differently. One has to look at other parameters of the flours to discern the true differences. We do know, however, that the KASA is milled from hard red winter wheat, which produces a "strong" flour.  By contrast, the Caputo 00 is milled from national grains and blended with a "strong" flour, known as Manitoba, which increases the overall protein level of the Caputo 00 flour. Because of that supplementation, the Caputo 00 flour has more overall protein than other brands of 00 flour available in the U.S., such as the Bel Aria, Delverde, etc.

Ash. Ash is a measurement of what remains after a sample of a flour is incinerated. A high number suggests a high extraction rate (the removal of things like bran, germ, etc.). The KASA has an ash number of 0.54. I don't have the corresponding number for the Caputo 00, but my recollection is that it is somewhere around 0.50. I know that at one time, the maximum ash content under Italian law was 0.50. If my number is correct, that suggests that the KASA retains more of the bran, germ, etc., where the mineral content is highest.

Falling Number. The falling number is a measurement that indicates the level of amylaze enzyme activity in a flour. It is viewed in relation to the amount of damaged starch in the flour that the amylase enzymes converts to sugar to feed the yeast during fermentation. The greater the starch damage, the greater the tendency on the part of millers to supplement the amylase enzyme (with barley malt or fungal amylase). The degree of amylase enzyme activity is inversely proportional to the falling number (i.e., the higher the number the lower the amylase enzyme activity, and visa versa). The low falling number for the KASA (260) implies the addition of barley malt to supplement the natural amylase enzyme levels of the underlying flour. The high falling number for the Caputo 00 (340-360) implies no malt supplementation and low amylase enzyme activity. This suggests that a Caputo 00 dough is capable of long fermentation. 

Absorption. Absorption has to do with the ability of a flour to absorb water and attain a certain dough consistency. We often refer to it as hydration percentage. For the KASA, it is 61%; for the Caputo 00, it is 55-57%. The differences in these values tells us that the type of protein/gluten in the KASA is capable of absorbing more water than the type of protein/gluten in the Caputo 00. It also suggests that the KASA is a somewhat "stronger" flour than the Caputo 00 even though the protein levels are comparable.

W . W is a number that is proportional to the strength of a dough and its ability to resist deformation. Molino Caputo publishes this figure but, like almost all U.S. companies, King Arthur doesn't. The Caputo number of 240-260 is in a range that implies a dough that is strong enough to withstand reasonably long fermentation. However, it is not as strong as other doughs based on higher gluten flours.

p/l. The p/l number is an indication of the elasticity ("springback")/plasticity (extensibility) cnaracteristics of a dough. A high figure suggests higher protein content and higher absorption. The typical range for p/l for bread dough is 0.4-0.7. At 0.5-0.6, the Caputo 00 falls within that range.  A Caputo 00 dough will handle better than doughs made from other 00 flours but not as well as one based on much higher protein/gluten levels.

Other Specs. The other specs, like Peak, Stability and MTI Mixing Tolerance Index), have to do with relative strength of a flour and dough and the ability of the dough to withstand kneading for prolonged periods before the gluten suffers damage. The numbers for the KASA suggest a very high quality flour. We do not have the numbers for the Caputo 00 but I am reasonably certain they are lower than for the KASA because it is a somewhat weaker flour with lower absorption and, quite likely, because of a somewhat different protein/gluten profile.

Peter
JimBob

Offline Randy

  • Supporting Member
  • *
  • Posts: 2020
  • Age: 67
  • Pizza, a great Lycopene source
Re: Glossary
« Reply #3 on: June 09, 2005, 01:58:11 PM »
AP
KA
KAAP
KASL
par-bake
cutter pan
oven spring
bakers percentage




Offline Pete-zza

  • Lifetime Member
  • Global Moderator
  • *
  • Posts: 22007
  • Location: Texas
  • Always learning
Re: Glossary
« Reply #4 on: June 09, 2005, 02:58:45 PM »
I would tend to favor keeping the glossary simple. As time goes on and interests change, we can always add new terms. I would add the following to the list:

00 flour
gluten
vital wheat gluten
ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
semolina
biga/poolish/sponge/old dough
baker's/cake/compressed/cake yeast
crumb
hydration
elasticity
extensibility
sourdough
pizza screen
pizza stone/tiles
peel
sea salt
Kosher salt
San Marzano
cow's milk mozzarella cheese (fior di latte)
buffalo mozzarella cheese (bufala di mozzarella)

Peter

Offline RSMBob

  • Registered User
  • Posts: 98
  • Location: Rancho Santa Margarita, CA but orig from Chicago
  • I Love Pizza!
Re: Glossary
« Reply #5 on: June 09, 2005, 05:23:30 PM »
Pizza Styles:
Cracker
Neapolitan
Thin Crust
Butter Crust
Pan Pizza
Silicilian Style
Deep Dish
Stuffed


Offline JimBob

  • Supporting Member
  • *
  • Posts: 87
  • Age: 47
  • Location: Ohio
  • I Love Pizza!
Re: Glossary
« Reply #6 on: June 13, 2005, 12:37:52 PM »
pizzaiolo (along with pronunciation)
JimBob

Offline marceld

  • Supporting Member
  • *
  • Posts: 17
  • Location: Oregon
Re: Glossary would be great for Newbies, like me
« Reply #7 on: November 02, 2005, 10:03:17 PM »
JimBob suggested that I put together a Glossary of Terms for the main website. I think it's an excellent idea.

Let's use this thread to post terms that should be in the glossary, then I'll compile them into a list and put them on the main website.


=================================================================

#01

(M)  This is my first posting on your Forum.

(M) I visited today's pictures and they look great. Then followed a discussion of the ingredients and process. The terms KAAP, and KASL were mentioned and I was able to infer that the KA was for King Arthur flour and that SL was for Sir Lancelot but I could not find a reference to the AP in KAAP.  Are you still planning on having a fixed "thread" for such terms?

=================================================================

(M) Because I'm new here I was unsure where to post my request to connect with members who use a masonry wood burning oven. If you, as Moderator-Administrator care to post this, please feel free to do so. I am also a member of the FornoBravo Forum http://www.fornobravo.com/forum/index.php?

=================================================================

(M) I have built all but the Gable House enclosure for my oven but may have to wait until spring to try it on an authentic  Neapolitan Pizza. I know nothing about pizza dough so I thought I'd come here to learn. I didn't build my oven just for pizza; I also want to bake rolls and various breads but pizza sounds like a good starter (no pun intended).

=================================================================

(M) Thanks for having this site available.

Ciao,

Marcel
"Everything should be made as simple as possible, ...... but no simpler." (Albert Einstein)

Offline Pete-zza

  • Lifetime Member
  • Global Moderator
  • *
  • Posts: 22007
  • Location: Texas
  • Always learning
Re: Glossary
« Reply #8 on: November 02, 2005, 10:18:03 PM »
Marcel,

Welcome to the forum. We have several members who have wood-fired ovens so you should be able to find dough recipes and help with your oven.

FYI, KAAP stands for King Arthur All-Purpose flour. It's hard to say how the glossary will end up. Because of the nature of the forum, new threads are often created when existing ones could have been used. My best advice is to check the sections where similar subject matter is located and post there. If nothing fits, then you can start a new thread.

As for your question on where to post about ovens, I would check out the Equipment and Supplies section where you will find several threads devoted to that subject.

Peter

Offline marceld

  • Supporting Member
  • *
  • Posts: 17
  • Location: Oregon
Re: Glossary Thanks Peter for your "Rapid Response"
« Reply #9 on: November 02, 2005, 10:25:33 PM »
Thanks, Peter,

I see your name a lot so I guess you're one of the senior members. There is soooooooooooo much for a Newbie to learn here. I hope you and the Moderator (JimBob?) actually post a glossary. Maybe it could be locked for editing but members could make suggestions on a separate thread.

Sorry to be so officious on my first reply to you; I just see a steep learning curve and everyone else is way ahead.

Ciao,

Marcel
"Everything should be made as simple as possible, ...... but no simpler." (Albert Einstein)


Offline Pete-zza

  • Lifetime Member
  • Global Moderator
  • *
  • Posts: 22007
  • Location: Texas
  • Always learning
Re: Glossary
« Reply #10 on: November 02, 2005, 10:46:13 PM »
Marcel,

Steve, the forum's administrator, apparently has something in mind for the glossary and a location for it on the site once he is able to find time to work on the matter. In the meantime, we can all perhaps do a better job with acronyms and arcane teminology so that our members who are just getting started have a clearer idea of what we are talking about.

As for being a newbie, those of us who have been around for a while started out just like you. I believe it was Confucius who said that a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. So, just take things a step at a time and soak things in.

Peter

Offline Lydia

  • Registered User
  • Posts: 833
  • Location: NORTHERN ALABAMA
    • Viddler
Re: Glossary
« Reply #11 on: November 04, 2005, 05:22:58 AM »
There is sooo much in this site. It takes more time to cover than Disney world! ;D

1. covering the synonyms would be very helpful. Especially the ones that "appear" to be synonyms but really aren't.

Example:
retard/ferment/ripening/proofing/rest period/24hr proof method/poolish/true polish/biga/starter/dough proofing vs. yeast proofing plus the ones mentioned by Peet-za

I know these have been covered throughout the site but...

Getting the definitions correct for the string above is very confusing, and takes alot time.

2. NAMES that are mentioned on a frequent basis a whether or not they are consultants, restaurant owner's, and/or book authors, or restaurants for that matter.

I was soo thankful that I at least knew who the "Dough Doctor" was and "Big Dave" but who the heck was Pasty's and where do I find "her" dough recipe?!?! Online... in a book?

I think I have this one all cleared up now, FoodTV helped. I should have been looking for Pat Bruno Jr.'s recipe...Right? :-[

and Lyman and Reinhart are referenced often, but without a first name. Understandably so, it would be too redundant to write out their names everytime.

It takes dedication, determination, or just plain ol' intrig to start sorting the info out.

Thanks for the site and the time and effort put into this site.

To build on Peet-za list:
oxidation
liquid levain
thickness factor
parchment paper= in the cake decorating world it was amazing how many people thought that this was wax paper or thought it could be used interchangably. I'd hate to see wax paper at 500F !

also: dough relaxer vs. dough conditioner

« Last Edit: November 04, 2005, 05:28:24 AM by Lydia »
The roundest knight at King Arthur's round table was Sir Cumference.They say he acquired his size from eating too much pi.

Offline Steve

  • Steve Zinski
  • Administrator
  • *
  • Posts: 1950
  • Age: 51
  • Location: Richmond, VA
    • pizzamaking.com
Re: Glossary
« Reply #12 on: November 04, 2005, 07:37:05 AM »
I know that I promosed a glossary (for the main site)... but I have been busy up to my eyeballs lately! If it's not work, it stuff to do at home (three kids in school doesn't help matters!) If we can get some glossary terms started in this thread, it would make my life easier! I could then cut-and-paste the entries to the static web page.
Pizzamaking.com is a member-supported public resource. Click HERE to become a Supporting Member.

Offline marceld

  • Supporting Member
  • *
  • Posts: 17
  • Location: Oregon
Re: Glossary: A possible start?
« Reply #13 on: November 04, 2005, 11:32:51 AM »
This posting will be sent to two fine forums:  http://www.fornobravo.com/forum/forumdisplay.php?f=10

and

http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php?topic=1466.new;topicseen#new

===============================================================

The FornoBravo forum is one I joined because it had extensive postings on building a masonry wood burning bread oven. It also has a forum within a forum on Brick Oven Cooking and within that forum, one specifically called: "Threads in Forum: Pizza"

It's structure for Pizza looks like this:

         Forno Bravo Forum > Brick Oven Cooking Forum>Pizza


=============================================================================================

The PizzaMaking forum has, as it's name suggests, a strong focus on Pizza with this structure:

+  Pizza Making Forum
|-+  General Topics
| |-+  Chitchat
| | |-+  Glossary

=============================================================================================

In response to requests for a Glossary, the PizzaMaking Forum had this response from it's moderator:

"If we can get some glossary terms started in this thread, it would make my life easier! I could then cut-and-paste the entries to the static web page."

====================================================================================

As a member of both Forums, I felt I could make a small contribution by getting the boule rolling in the hope that others would offer their definitions to a Glossary that could be used by both Forums.

 To use this posting as a place for your entries, let me know where you placed your definition. I will go there, Copy-Paste it here until Steve finds a "Static Web Page" for this site. (marceld)


Since the PizzaMaking moderator mentioned a "static web page." perhaps the FornoBravo Forum moderator could set up a similar page (and also one for photographs) where members could go for definitions illustrations, and explanations.

=====================================================================================

It seems to me that both Forums have similar goals: to advance bread baking by novice bakers to the art form it has become for professionals such as Joe Ortiz, the author of "The Village Baker".

To that end, I will start to Copy some of the definitions from "The Village Baker" by Joe Ortiz with full credit, thanks,  and  - Attribution to him in this posting, with the initials, "J.O." following those that I extracted from his book:



GLOSSARY


ABSORPTION: Absorption has to do with the ability of a flour to absorb water and attain a certain dough consistency. We often refer to it as hydration percentage. For the KASA, it is 61%; for the Caputo 00, it is 55-57%. The differences in these values tells us that the type of protein/gluten in the KASA is capable of absorbing more water than the type of protein/gluten in the Caputo 00. It also suggests that the KASA is a somewhat "stronger" flour than the Caputo 00 even though the protein levels are comparable.(Peter)

AMYLASE: A natural enzyme that helps change starch into sugar; used in some French bakeries in a product called levit as a yest food. (J.O.)

ASCORBIC ACID: See Vitamin C. (J.O.)

Ash. Ash is a measurement of what remains after a sample of a flour is incinerated. A high number suggests a high extraction rate (the removal of things like bran, germ, etc.). The KASA has an ash number of 0.54. I don't have the corresponding number for the Caputo 00, but my recollection is that it is somewhere around 0.50. I know that at one time, the maximum ash content under Italian law was 0.50. If my number is correct, that suggests that the KASA retains more of the bran, germ, etc., where the mineral content is highest. (Peter)

ASH CONTENT: The mineral content of any flour, usually around .5 to .6 percent. The higher the ash content, the grayer the crumb. (J.O.)

AUTOLYSE: A process used by some French bakers whereby all or some of the ingredients in a batch of dough are mixed to incorporate them, then the dough is allowed to rest for 5 or 10 minutes, right in the mixing bowl. After this rest period, the Autolyse which allows the flour to be fully hydrated and the gluten to relax, the dough is then mixed to full development.(J.O.)

BAKER'S YEAST: See Yeast. (J.O.)

BANNETON: A basket lined with Belgian linen and used to hold a loaf while it is undergoing its final rising. At home bakers can use a wicker basket, lined with a plain dishtowel and sprinkled with flour.(J.O.)

BASSINER: To moisten a dry dough by pouring in more water and incorporating it. It is easier to obtain a very wet dough (or to correct the consistency of a dough) by adding water later, than by starting out with too much. (J.O.)

BATARD: Literally, "bastard" , this is a medium-long loaf that is neither a baguette nor a boule. In America it is often called a French loaf. See also Pate batarde. (J.O.)

BIGA: The Italian name for a yeasted starter that is mixed very firm and set to rise overnight. It helps give Italian breads their characteristic earthy flavor and uneven crumb. (J.O.)

BLOOM: The rich color and attractive physical appearance of a loaf that was put into the oven at the right time and was well baked. (J.O.)

BOULE: Ball of dough or round loaf.(J.O.)

BREWER'S YEAST: See Yeast. (J.O.)

CAKE FLOUR: See Flour. (J.O.)

CHEF (CHEF LEVAIN): Original or chief leavening agent. It is usually a natural starter that is given the first of many refreshments; thereafter it is known as the levain. (J.O.)

Falling Number. The falling number is a measurement that indicates the level of amylaze enzyme activity in a flour. It is viewed in relation to the amount of damaged starch in the flour that the amylase enzymes converts to sugar to feed the yeast during fermentation. The greater the starch damage, the greater the tendency on the part of millers to supplement the amylase enzyme (with barley malt or fungal amylase). The degree of amylase enzyme activity is inversely proportional to the falling number (i.e., the higher the number the lower the amylase enzyme activity, and visa versa). The low falling number for the KASA (260) implies the addition of barley malt to supplement the natural amylase enzyme levels of the underlying flour. The high falling number for the Caputo 00 (340-360) implies no malt supplementation and low amylase enzyme activity. This suggests that a Caputo 00 dough is capable of long fermentation. (Peter)

Other Specs. The other specs, like Peak, Stability and MTI Mixing Tolerance Index), have to do with relative strength of a flour and dough and the ability of the dough to withstand kneading for prolonged periods before the gluten suffers damage. The numbers for the KASA suggest a very high quality flour. We do not have the numbers for the Caputo 00 but I am reasonably certain they are lower than for the KASA because it is a somewhat weaker flour with lower absorption and, quite likely, because of a somewhat different protein/gluten profile. (Peter)

p/l. The p/l number is an indication of the elasticity ("springback")/plasticity (extensibility) cnaracteristics of a dough. A high figure suggests higher protein content and higher absorption. The typical range for p/l for bread dough is 0.4-0.7. At 0.5-0.6, the Caputo 00 falls within that range.  A Caputo 00 dough will handle better than doughs made from other 00 flours but not as well as one based on much higher protein/gluten levels. (Peter)

Protein. Looking at just the protein levels, one might think that the two flours are fairly similar. However, protein levels alone don't tell much about the type and quality of protein or gluten. It's possible for two flours to have similar protein levels and behave quite differently. One has to look at other parameters of the flours to discern the true differences. We do know, however, that the KASA is milled from hard red winter wheat, which produces a "strong" flour.  By contrast, the Caputo 00 is milled from national grains and blended with a "strong" flour, known as Manitoba, which increases the overall protein level of the Caputo 00 flour. Because of that supplementation, the Caputo 00 flour has more overall protein than other brands of 00 flour available in the U.S., such as the Bel Aria, Delverde, etc. (Peter)

 TARE defined:

  "1. The weight of a container or wrapper that is deducted from the gross weight to obtain net weight.
   2. A deduction from gross weight made to allow for the weight of a container.
   3. Chemistry. A counterbalance, especially an empty vessel used to counterbalance the weight of a similar container."

(Marcel) via Answer.com


W . W is a number that is proportional to the strength of a dough and its ability to resist deformation. Molino Caputo publishes this figure but, like almost all U.S. companies, King Arthur doesn't. The Caputo number of 240-260 is in a range that implies a dough that is strong enough to withstand reasonably long fermentation. However, it is not as strong as other doughs based on higher gluten flours. (Peter)
=========================

The moderators have set up these Forums for our use so now it is up to all of us to build this glossary. If you have a definition, please insert it alphabetically. If either moderator wants to change and standardize the fonts above, please do so.

Ciao,

Marcel

P.S. To use this posting as a place for your entries, clcik on "Modify"? Maybe it only worked for me, I entered "Tare", because I authored this post but its worth a try.

« Last Edit: November 04, 2005, 10:44:45 PM by marceld »
"Everything should be made as simple as possible, ...... but no simpler." (Albert Einstein)

Offline Lydia

  • Registered User
  • Posts: 833
  • Location: NORTHERN ALABAMA
    • Viddler
Re: Glossary
« Reply #14 on: November 04, 2005, 12:39:24 PM »
Dose anyone have connections with John Correll, to get permission to cut and paste definitions from Encyclopizza?
The roundest knight at King Arthur's round table was Sir Cumference.They say he acquired his size from eating too much pi.

Offline Pete-zza

  • Lifetime Member
  • Global Moderator
  • *
  • Posts: 22007
  • Location: Texas
  • Always learning
Re: Glossary
« Reply #15 on: November 04, 2005, 04:35:47 PM »
I am willing to take responsibility for the terms I posted some time ago. I will also take Randy's terms and those that were listed by Lydia that are closely related to the ones on my list. Lydia is right that it is not easy to sort through all the terms like poolish, biga, levain, etc. These are technical terms that are often widely misused in the literature. I know that I myself have shifted gears on the use of certain arcane terms as I got smarter. I still am scratching my head on "ripening" to get an exact meaning. Maybe Marco can help on that one since he is the one that uses it frequently.

I will also take the common names Lehmann, Ostrander, Reinhart, Sheldon Johns and any others that I recall having used more than once. But only to the extent they relate to pizza.

Since the focus of this forum is pizza, I don't think we should include bread terms in the glossary, except to the extent they also relate to pizza. Terms like autolyse, biga, sponge, etc., came out of the bread arts but have been used in the pizza field also.

Peter

Offline Lydia

  • Registered User
  • Posts: 833
  • Location: NORTHERN ALABAMA
    • Viddler
Re: Glossary
« Reply #16 on: November 04, 2005, 07:09:03 PM »
LOL... my DH was trying to be helpful...

ripening: to ripen

Ferment: to rot

Gotta luv'em anyway  :D
The roundest knight at King Arthur's round table was Sir Cumference.They say he acquired his size from eating too much pi.

Offline marceld

  • Supporting Member
  • *
  • Posts: 17
  • Location: Oregon
Re: Glossary
« Reply #17 on: November 06, 2005, 10:36:45 PM »
This posting will be sent to two fine forums: http://www.fornobravo.com/forum/forumdisplay.php?f=10

and

http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php?topic=1466.new;topicseen#new

===============================================================

The FornoBravo forum is one I joined because it had extensive postings on building a masonry wood burning bread oven. It also has a forum within a forum on Brick Oven Cooking and within that forum, one specifically called: "Threads in Forum: Pizza"

It's structure for Pizza looks like this:

        Forno Bravo Forum > Brick Oven Cooking Forum>Pizza


=============================================================================================

The PizzaMaking forum has, as it's name suggests, a strong focus on Pizza with this structure:

+ Pizza Making Forum
|-+ General Topics
| |-+ Chitchat
| | |-+ Glossary

=============================================================================================

In response to requests for a Glossary, the PizzaMaking Forum had this response from it's moderator:

"If we can get some glossary terms started in this thread, it would make my life easier! I could then cut-and-paste the entries to the static web page."

====================================================================================

As a member of both Forums, I felt I could make a small contribution by getting the boule rolling in the hope that others would offer their definitions to a Glossary that could be used by both Forums.

 To use this posting as a place for your entries, let me know where you placed your definition. I will go there, Copy-Paste it here until Steve finds a "Static Web Page" for this site. (marceld)


Since the PizzaMaking moderator mentioned a "static web page." perhaps the FornoBravo Forum moderator could set up a similar page (and also one for photographs) where members could go for definitions illustrations, and explanations.

=====================================================================================

It seems to me that both Forums have similar goals: to advance bread baking by novice bakers to the art form it has become for professionals such as Joe Ortiz, the author of "The Village Baker".

To that end, I will start to Copy some of the definitions from "The Village Baker" by Joe Ortiz with full credit, thanks, and - Attribution to him in this posting, with the initials, "J.O." following those that I extracted from his book:



GLOSSARY


ABSORPTION: Absorption has to do with the ability of a flour to absorb water and attain a certain dough consistency. We often refer to it as hydration percentage. For the KASA, it is 61%; for the Caputo 00, it is 55-57%. The differences in these values tells us that the type of protein/gluten in the KASA is capable of absorbing more water than the type of protein/gluten in the Caputo 00. It also suggests that the KASA is a somewhat "stronger" flour than the Caputo 00 even though the protein levels are comparable.(Peter)

AMYLASE: A natural enzyme that helps change starch into sugar; used in some French bakeries in a product called levit as a yest food. (J.O.)

ASCORBIC ACID: See Vitamin C. (J.O.)

Ash. Ash is a measurement of what remains after a sample of a flour is incinerated. A high number suggests a high extraction rate (the removal of things like bran, germ, etc.). The KASA has an ash number of 0.54. I don't have the corresponding number for the Caputo 00, but my recollection is that it is somewhere around 0.50. I know that at one time, the maximum ash content under Italian law was 0.50. If my number is correct, that suggests that the KASA retains more of the bran, germ, etc., where the mineral content is highest. (Peter)

ASH CONTENT: The mineral content of any flour, usually around .5 to .6 percent. The higher the ash content, the grayer the crumb. (J.O.)

AUTOLYSE: A process used by some French bakers whereby all or some of the ingredients in a batch of dough are mixed to incorporate them, then the dough is allowed to rest for 5 or 10 minutes, right in the mixing bowl. After this rest period, the Autolyse which allows the flour to be fully hydrated and the gluten to relax, the dough is then mixed to full development.(J.O.)

BAKER'S YEAST: See Yeast. (J.O.)

BANNETON: A basket lined with Belgian linen and used to hold a loaf while it is undergoing its final rising. At home bakers can use a wicker basket, lined with a plain dishtowel and sprinkled with flour.(J.O.)

BASSINER: To moisten a dry dough by pouring in more water and incorporating it. It is easier to obtain a very wet dough (or to correct the consistency of a dough) by adding water later, than by starting out with too much. (J.O.)

BATARD: Literally, "bastard" , this is a medium-long loaf that is neither a baguette nor a boule. In America it is often called a French loaf. See also Pate batarde. (J.O.)

BIGA: The Italian name for a yeasted starter that is mixed very firm and set to rise overnight. It helps give Italian breads their characteristic earthy flavor and uneven crumb. (J.O.)

BLOOM: The rich color and attractive physical appearance of a loaf that was put into the oven at the right time and was well baked. (J.O.)

BOULE: Ball of dough or round loaf.(J.O.)

BREWER'S YEAST: See Yeast. (J.O.)

CAKE FLOUR: See Flour. (J.O.)

 EVOO : Extra Virgin Olive Oil (Marcel)

CHEF (CHEF LEVAIN): Original or chief leavening agent. It is usually a natural starter that is given the first of many refreshments; thereafter it is known as the levain. (J.O.)

Falling Number. The falling number is a measurement that indicates the level of amylaze enzyme activity in a flour. It is viewed in relation to the amount of damaged starch in the flour that the amylase enzymes converts to sugar to feed the yeast during fermentation. The greater the starch damage, the greater the tendency on the part of millers to supplement the amylase enzyme (with barley malt or fungal amylase). The degree of amylase enzyme activity is inversely proportional to the falling number (i.e., the higher the number the lower the amylase enzyme activity, and visa versa). The low falling number for the KASA (260) implies the addition of barley malt to supplement the natural amylase enzyme levels of the underlying flour. The high falling number for the Caputo 00 (340-360) implies no malt supplementation and low amylase enzyme activity. This suggests that a Caputo 00 dough is capable of long fermentation. (Peter)

Other Specs. The other specs, like Peak, Stability and MTI Mixing Tolerance Index), have to do with relative strength of a flour and dough and the ability of the dough to withstand kneading for prolonged periods before the gluten suffers damage. The numbers for the KASA suggest a very high quality flour. We do not have the numbers for the Caputo 00 but I am reasonably certain they are lower than for the KASA because it is a somewhat weaker flour with lower absorption and, quite likely, because of a somewhat different protein/gluten profile. (Peter)

p/l. The p/l number is an indication of the elasticity ("springback")/plasticity (extensibility) cnaracteristics of a dough. A high figure suggests higher protein content and higher absorption. The typical range for p/l for bread dough is 0.4-0.7. At 0.5-0.6, the Caputo 00 falls within that range. A Caputo 00 dough will handle better than doughs made from other 00 flours but not as well as one based on much higher protein/gluten levels. (Peter)

Protein. Looking at just the protein levels, one might think that the two flours are fairly similar. However, protein levels alone don't tell much about the type and quality of protein or gluten. It's possible for two flours to have similar protein levels and behave quite differently. One has to look at other parameters of the flours to discern the true differences. We do know, however, that the KASA is milled from hard red winter wheat, which produces a "strong" flour. By contrast, the Caputo 00 is milled from national grains and blended with a "strong" flour, known as Manitoba, which increases the overall protein level of the Caputo 00 flour. Because of that supplementation, the Caputo 00 flour has more overall protein than other brands of 00 flour available in the U.S., such as the Bel Aria, Delverde, etc. (Peter)

 TARE defined:

 "1. The weight of a container or wrapper that is deducted from the gross weight to obtain net weight.
 2. A deduction from gross weight made to allow for the weight of a container.
 3. Chemistry. A counterbalance, especially an empty vessel used to counterbalance the weight of a similar container."

(Marcel) via Answer.com


W . W is a number that is proportional to the strength of a dough and its ability to resist deformation. Molino Caputo publishes this figure but, like almost all U.S. companies, King Arthur doesn't. The Caputo number of 240-260 is in a range that implies a dough that is strong enough to withstand reasonably long fermentation. However, it is not as strong as other doughs based on higher gluten flours. (Peter)
=========================

The moderators have set up these Forums for our use so now it is up to all of us to build this glossary. If you have a definition, please insert it alphabetically. If either moderator wants to change and standardize the fonts above, please do so.

Ciao,

Marcel

P.S. To use this posting as a place for your entries, clcik on "Modify"? Maybe it only worked for me, I entered "Tare", because I authored this post but its worth a try.


"Everything should be made as simple as possible, ...... but no simpler." (Albert Einstein)

Offline marceld

  • Supporting Member
  • *
  • Posts: 17
  • Location: Oregon
Re: Glossary and John Correll's approval of Lydia's request
« Reply #18 on: November 07, 2005, 10:32:02 AM »
(M) Lydia wrote:

Dose anyone have connections with John Correll, to get permission to cut and paste definitions from Encyclopizza?


(M) I sent an email to John Correll and this was his reply:

(John Correll)

"Marcel:
 
You have my permission to cut and paste any definitions from my Encyclopizza book (on my website www.correllconcepts.com) to the Glossary on www.pizzamaking.com. If you do so, please kindly reference where the definition(s) came from.
 
Also, please bear in mind that this permission does NOT constitute a granting of permission to cut and paste or in any way duplicate any other portion of Encyclopizza for any other use.
 
Best regards,
John Correll"

=========================================================================

(M) For those who are concerned that the permission would apply only to me, please note that Mr. Correll also has the following general permission statement shown on his Web Site:

"Copyright 2002, Correll Consulting, LLC. We grant you permission to make a printed copy of any portions of this website. All rights reserved. Legal Notice."

(M) Thank you Mr. Correll.  :)

Ciao,

Marcel
"Everything should be made as simple as possible, ...... but no simpler." (Albert Einstein)

Offline Pete-zza

  • Lifetime Member
  • Global Moderator
  • *
  • Posts: 22007
  • Location: Texas
  • Always learning
Re: Glossary
« Reply #19 on: November 14, 2005, 12:30:33 PM »
Steve,

I have been working on the glossary and hope soon to have it ready for you. I will post it in sections rather than in one single post. The glossary represents my work product. I wrote it based on personal knowledge (memory mostly) and my personal research and I did not just copy stuff wholesale from any source, copyrighted or not. So I don't think any attributions to anyone are required. As is my habit, I try to be accurate on everything I write and to check and double check my sources when in doubt. However, what I write can only be as accurate as my sources. In arcane matters of dough science and technology there can be many different points of view and it is rare to find unanimity on anything, even among those who are considered experts in their field. I discovered this most on what things like bigas, poolishes, pate fermente, sponges, chefs, old dough, levains, etc., really are. Most of these terms have been bastardized beyond recognition.

About the only thing I couldn't find an answer to is the pronunciation of pizziaolo. I would guess peach-i-o-lo, but I guess I will need help from someone who is Italian to be sure.

Peter
« Last Edit: November 14, 2005, 01:54:13 PM by Pete-zza »