Author Topic: Glossary  (Read 8498 times)

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Offline Pete-zza

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Re: Glossary
« Reply #20 on: November 14, 2005, 12:50:41 PM »
00 FLOUR: An imported Italian flour made from national grains and/or blends of national and imported grains (including Manitoba flour from Canada) to achieve a range of protein of about 10-12.5%. Common brands of 00 flour available at the retail level in the U.S. include Caputo, Bel Aria and Delverde. King Arthur also produces a “clone” of the 00 flour (called Italian-Style flour), with a protein level of 8.5%, which is quite a bit lower than the imported Italian 00 flours. It is not an authentic 00 flour and will have different behavioral characteristics.

ABSORPTION: A measurement established by flour producers to describe the capacity of a flour to absorb water and achieve a desired dough consistency. The value is expressed in terms of percent of water absorbed by a flour sample during the measurement test. The measurement is a laboratory measurement and, hence, is not identical to the hydration ratio actually achieved in field applications, although it is usually quite close.

ACTIVE DRY YEAST (ADY): A dried form of yeast that, before combining with other dough ingredients, is activated by re-hydration, or “proofing”, in warm water (or other liquid) at around 105-115 degrees F. Some brands of active dry yeast can also be combined with a portion of the flour and other dry ingredients, in which case the temperature of the liquid used (usually water) can be as high as 120-130 degrees F. Advantages of active dry yeast include convenience of use and long storage life, especially when sealed and frozen in an airtight container.

ADY: See ACTIVE DRY YEAST.

ALL-PURPOSE FLOUR: A medium-protein flour used for general baking purposes. Protein levels of all-purpose flours vary from one producer to another, but a typical range is 10-11.7%.

AP: An abbreviation for all-purpose flour.

ASCORBIC ACID: An organic acid more commonly known as Vitamin C and commonly used as an additive for flour and also for instant dry yeast (IDY), and sometimes with active dry yeast (ADY). When added to flour, it acts as an oxidizing agent (by virtue of acting with atmospheric oxygen), which makes it easier to form the gluten network (by preventing the gluten bonds from breaking down) during kneading of the dough. When used with yeast, it acts as a nutrient and provides an acidic environment for the yeast so that it acts faster and longer.

ASH: A term used in relation to flour to indicate its mineral content. The higher the ash count, the more minerals are present in the flour, and vice versa. To calculate the ash count, a sample of the flour is incinerated and the remains (the “ash”) are then weighed in relation to the original sample weight to calculate the ash count for that flour. The ash count can serve as an indication of the degree of refinement of the flour since a flour from which most of the bran has been removed will have a lower ash count than one from which less bran has been removed. A flour with a high ash count will also be slightly darker than one with a low ash count because of the higher amount of bran. Today, ash count has even less of a relationship to milling quality than it did a few decades ago because new wheat varieties and richer soils have made higher ash levels the norm, with typical ash values commonly being around 0.50% for domestic wheat varieties.
 
AUTOLYSE: A rest period, typically lasting 15-45 minutes, during which flour and especially the protein in the flour fully absorb the water before the yeast and salt are added and fermentation activity begins. Full absorption allows the gluten structure to form better, more complex bonds and serves to reduce oxidation of the dough and shorten the overall mix time. Autolyse also helps increase the extensibility of the dough due to the action of protease enzymes in the flour to break down the gluten slightly during the autolyse. Over time, the term “autolyse” has come to be used to refer to almost any rest period during the mix/knead cycle even though such use is not technically an autolyse as conceived by its originator, Prof. Raymond Calvel, a professor emeritus of baking sciences at L’ecole Francais de Meunerie and author of the classic work on European breadmaking, LeGout de Pain. The term autolyse is pronounced ah-toh-leez.

BAKER’S PERCENTS (OR PERCENTAGES): A mathematical tool and “language” used by bakers to analyze recipes and to scale or re-size recipes up or down in quantity. It is a weight-based system in which the percentage of each ingredient is stated in relation to the weight of the flour, which always has a baker’s percent of 100%. In the context of pizza dough production, baker’s percents can be used to determine the quantities of ingredients required to make any dough batch size or number of pizzas of any given size and crust thickness.
 
BIGA: An Italian term that generally means preferment. A biga is made from a mixture of flour, water, a small amount of commercial yeast, but no salt, and typically uses a hydration sufficient to achieve a generally quite stiff, dough-like consistency, much like the final dough into which it is to be incorporated. It is allowed to ferment and ripen at room temperature for several hours (typically from 12 to 24 hours or more) before incorporating into the final dough. Although bigas most often use commercial yeast, a biga can also be made using naturally occurring (wild) yeast. Such a biga is sometimes referred to as a “Biga Natural”. The term “biga” is pronounced bee-gah.

BUFFALO MOZZARELLA (MOZZARELLA DI BUFALA): A cheese made from the milk of water buffaloes (river water buffaloes). The cheese is generally considered to be of high quality because the water buffalo milk from which the cheese is made is thicker than regular milk, whiter (porcelain-white), with more butterfat, and more non-fat solids.  (It also has 38% more calcium and 43% less cholesterol than cow’s milk.)  The cheese is a firm, stringy-textured cheese with a thin rind and delicate taste. Its principal drawback for the average home pizza maker is that the cheese has to be imported from Italy, mainly the Campania region of southern Italy (which is home to over eighty percent of Italy’s water buffaloes), and, accordingly, is expensive compared with domestic cow’s milk mozzarella cheeses. It also starts to deteriorate in quality fairly quickly. While most buffalo mozzarella cheese is imported from Italy, there are at least two domestic producers of the cheese as of this writing.

CAKE FLOUR: A relatively low-protein flour (typically 7-8.5%) milled from soft red winter wheat and used primarily for baking cakes and similar soft baked goods. It is often combined with other flours, including all-purpose, pastry and bread flour, to simulate imported Italian 00 flours for use in making Neapolitan-style pizzas. It has a typical absorption rate of about 53%, +/- 2%. It is one of the few flours to be bleached by King Arthur, which is done to achieve greater volume.

CALVEL (Prof. Raymond): A recognized expert on the production of quality French and other European hearth breads and the originator (in the 1970’s) of the autolyse method and other aspects of dough and bread making. Was a professor of baking sciences at the L’ecole Francais de Meunerie and the author of the classic work on bread production, Le Gout du Pain (translated into English as The Taste of Bread.) Is considered by many to be the “father” of bread making.

CAPUTO: An Italian producer of Caputo 00 flours sold in the U.S. and in several other countries for use in making pizza doughs and doughs for other baked goods. The Caputo brands in the U.S. include Caputo 00 pizzeria flour (the flour most commonly used by pizzamaking.com members), Caputo Rosso, and Caputo Extra Blue. The Caputo Rosso flour has the highest level of protein of the three flours and the Caputo Extra Blue has the lowest. See also the Caputo website: http://www.molinocaputo.it/#.

CHEF: See PATE FERMENTE.

COLD FERMENTATION: The fermentation of a dough under refrigeration, usually for an extended period of time, for the purpose of developing better flavors and aromas in the finished crust through increased production of fermentation byproducts.

COMPRESSED YEAST: A fresh form of yeast also commonly referred to as “fresh” or “cake” yeast. It is a “wet” form of yeast inasmuch as it has a moisture content of around 70%, which makes it faster acting than dry yeasts and, hence, attractive to bakers and pizza operators who must use yeast regularly and in high volume in their businesses. This form of yeast is also available to consumers in small packages (usually 0.6 ounces, or 17 g.) sold in the refrigerated sections of many supermarkets. In use, the compressed yeast is either hydrated (“proofed”) in tepid water (80-90 degrees F) before using or crumbled and mixed into the flour and other dry ingredients. The principal drawback of this form of yeast is that it is highly perishable and has a short shelf life (refrigerated), usually around two weeks or less. For consumers (but not for bakers) it is also considerably more expensive than dry yeasts on an equivalency basis.

CRUMB: A term used by bakers to define the inside of a bread or pizza crust, that is, its internal cell structure. Many factors can influence the cell structure of the crumb. For example, a high hydration dough that has not been overkneaded, has been properly shaped, and has sufficient yeast available at the time of baking to produce a good, final oven spring will generally result in a crumb that is open and airy with a lot of large, irregularly-sized and shaped holes (called alveoles). Conversely, a dough with low hydration, rolled rather than hand shaped, and with low yeast levels at the time of baking (resulting in a poorer oven spring) will generally result in a crumb that is more breadlike, with small, even-sized and tightly formed cells. Experienced bakers can usually also tell from the color and other facets of the crumb what kind of flour and yeast levels were used, including the use of preferments.

CUTTER PAN: A circular solid or perforated metal pan with sloping sides and a sharp exposed outer edge for permitting a rolled out or sheeted dough that has been draped over the sharp edge of the pan to be cut to fit the pan by rolling a rolling pin over the dough and pan. To see a typical example of a cutter pan, go to http://www.pizzatools.com/productdisplay.aspx?catid=52.

DAIRY WHEY: A baking ingredient derived as a byproduct of cheese production and processed into a dry form for use in doughs to promote greater crust browning. Dried dairy whey includes around 70 percent lactose, a milk sugar. It’s the only simple sugar that is not metabolized (consumed) by yeast. But it contributes to browning of the crust. The lactose also has a low sweetness factor, so it won’t be detected in the crust. So the result will be better color in the finished crust but not the accompanying sweetness. The usual rate of use of dairy whey is around 4% by weight of flour

DAMAGED STARCH: Starch in flour that is damaged during milling (and sometimes inherent in the wheat grain). Damaged starch in a flour is important because enzymes in the flour, namely, alpha- and beta-amylase, work on the damaged starch to produce compounds that are converted to simple sugars for feeding the yeast during fermentation, and also to contribute to the residual sugars in the dough at the time of baking to promote better crust browning.

DIASTATIC MALT: A barley malt commonly used in flours to increase the extraction of sugars from the flours for use as food for the yeast during fermentation and to increase the residual sugars in the dough at the time of baking to promote increased crust browning. The diastatic malt is produced from barley that has been sprouted, dried and ground into flour. The diastatic malt works through enzymatic activity (it provides additional alpha-amylase) to release sugar from the damaged starch molecules of flour. Diastatic malt is available in both dry and liquid form. The recommended rate is about 1/2 to 1 teaspoon for every 3 cups of flour. Any more than that can result in a slack, sticky dough and a gummy crumb in the baked crust.

D.O.P/DOP: An abbreviation for Denominazione d’Origine Protetta, or “denomination of protected origin”. This mark is guaranteed by the European Community (EU) and was created to promote the authenticity and artisan characteristics of certain food and agricultural products. These products are split into the categories of cheese, fruit and vegetables, salumi (or meats), and olive oils. A DOP certification guarantees that a product and all phases of production for that product have been carried out in a strictly defined geographic area which, in some cases, can be just a small cluster of villages. Among the pizza related ingredients that are often covered under the D.O.P. mark are San Marzano tomatoes, buffalo mozzarella cheeses, olive oils, prosciutto di Parma, grana padano, pecorino Romano, and Parmiggiano Reggiano cheeses.

DOUGH CONDITIONER: A general term used for additives that function to help improve the quality of the finished product by altering the way dough behaves. There are four main categories of dough conditioners: 1) enzymes, 2) oxidizing agents, 3) reducing agents, and 4) emulsifiers. Enzymes are biological catalysts that accelerate chemical reactions, such as increasing the extraction of sugar from starch. Oxidizing agents improve the dough strength by forming bonds between the protein chains. Reducing agents weaken the protein by breaking bonds between proteins during mixing, thereby reducing the mixing times and dough elasticity Emulsifiers strengthen the dough or soften the crumb. Examples of additives falling into the above four categories include diastatic malt, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), L-cysteine (or PZ-44), and lecithin, respectively.

DOUGH RELAXER: A baking ingredient used to relax dough that is excessively elastic and prone to shrinking and snapping back. The problem is most commonly experienced with doughs made from high-gluten flours. Common examples of ingredients used to relax such doughs so that they can be shaped and stretched to the desired size (diameter) include glutathione (dead yeast cells), L-cysteine, and PZ-44 (a combination of L-cysteine and whey proteins). Since these ingredients are available primarily for use by professional pizza operators, home pizza makers usually rely on high hydration levels and longer periods of fermentation to allow the enzymes in the flour (namely the protease enzymes) to soften the gluten so that the dough becomes sufficiently extensible to shape and stretch out to the desired size. (Note: a dough relaxer product produced by Lora Brody for use by home bakers as a dough relaxer has been discontinued.)

DRY MILK: A powdered milk product commonly added to dough primarily for crust color development (browning). It includes lactose (about 50%), a simple sugar that is primarily responsible for the browning but is not consumed by the yeast. Consequently, the sugar is available during the time of baking as a residual sugar to promote browning. Because lactose has a low sweetness value, it will not be detected as sweetness in the crust. What is important is that the powdered milk be of a high-heat baker's grade form, not the type sold in supermarkets.  The baker’s grade form of dry milk has been heated at high temperature and otherwise processed to disable certain offending constituents of milk (either a whey protein or an enzyme) so that the dough doesn’t become overly slack and soft. A typical rate of use of the baker’s grade dry milk is around 3-5% by weight of flour. At higher levels of use, the dry milk can provide a measure of softness in the finished crust.

ELASTICITY: The capability of dough to return to its original shape after stretching. This effect is often referred to as “dough memory”. Generally speaking, doughs made with high-protein, high-gluten flours tend most to exhibit this tendency because of their higher gluten content and their more extensive and stronger gluten network. Doughs will also exhibit high elasticity if they are reworked or re-kneaded just before shaping and stretching, which disorients and misaligns the gluten strands from their relaxed state just prior to reshaping.

EXTENSIBILITY: The capability of dough to be shaped and stretched without breaking or springing back to its original shape. Generally speaking, doughs made with low-protein low-gluten flours, high hydration levels, and long fermentation times will tend to be more extensible than doughs made with high-protein high-gluten flours, low hydration levels, and short fermentation times.

FALLING NUMBER: A term used by millers and bakers to refer to the alpha-amylase activity in flour. The lower the falling number, the more enzymatically active is the flour, and vice versa. For many flours, the falling number is adjusted through the addition of diastatic malt, or fungal amylase, to increase the level of enzymatic activity for optimum dough performance. Such adjustments are usually done at the mill, but sometimes by the baker. Malted bread flours typically have falling numbers of: 250-290. Generally, a falling number value of 350 or greater indicates low enzyme activity. Values below 200 indicate high levels of enzyme activity. For comparison purposes, the King Arthur Sir Lancelot flour, which is a malted flour, has a falling number of 250 +/- 30 sec. By contrast, the Caputo 00 pizzeria flour, which is unmalted, has a falling number of 340-360 sec. Quite often, the falling number alone will indicate to one whether a particular flour is malted or not.

FERMENTATION: The process by which yeast metabolizes (consumes) simple sugars to produce carbon dioxide and alcohol (ethyl alcohol). The sugars come basically from three sources: a small amount of simple sugars naturally present in the flour, sugars that are converted from complex sugars to simple sugars through a series of conversion operations, and sugar that is released by enzymatic action on damaged starch in the flour (starch that is primarily damaged during milling). The carbon dioxide resulting from fermentation is trapped within the gluten structure, causing the dough to rise. The alcohol is converted to compounds that provide flavor and aroma to the finished crust.

FIBRAMENT: A brand of baking (pizza) stone sold by AWMCO. See http://www.bakingstone.com.

FIOR DI LATTE: A fresh, whole-milk mozzarella cheese made from cows milk.

FRICTION FACTOR (FF): A value, stated in degrees F or degrees C, that represents the amount of frictional heat imparted to a dough by the particular machine (e.g., stand mixer, food processor, or bread machine) used to mix and knead the dough. This value is used along with other temperature measurements, namely, room temperature and flour temperature, to calculate the temperature of water required to achieve a desired finished dough temperature (usually around 80-85 degrees F, which is considered optimal for fermentation purposes). Water temperature is selected for adjustment since it is the easiest of all the temperatures to control. The value of the friction factor will vary depending on the type of machine used, the machine speeds used, bowl and dough batch size, and duration of knead.

GLUTEN: An elastic, rubbery substance that results when certain proteins in flour, namely glutenin and gliadin, are combined with a liquid (usually water) and mixed together. Prior to this combination the gluten does not exist. When the gluten in dough is properly kneaded, a strong and highly developed gluten network forms that has a honeycomb-like structure to retain gases (carbon dioxide) produced during fermentation. As the gases are produced in quantity, the gluten structure expands, causing the dough to rise.

HYDRATION: A term that refers to the capacity of flour to absorb water. Hydration is usually stated as a baker’s percent, or ratio, that is equal to the weight of water divided by the weight of flour used in a recipe. Different flours have different capacities to absorb water, with high-protein flours having higher hydration capacities than lower protein flours.

HYDROSCOPIC: See HYGROSCOPIC.

HYGROSCOPIC: The capacity of a substance to absorb moisture from its surroundings. Flour, salt and sugar (and honey) are good examples of hygroscopic ingredients familiar to pizza makers. The term hygroscopic is sometimes spelled hydroscopic.
« Last Edit: November 14, 2005, 01:44:53 PM by Pete-zza »


Offline Pete-zza

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Re: Glossary
« Reply #21 on: November 14, 2005, 01:15:09 PM »
IDY: See INSTANT DRY YEAST.

INSTANT DRY YEAST (IDY): A very finely-divided strain of dry yeast that, because of its particular strain and its smaller particle size than active dry yeast (ADY), needs no re-hydration, or “proofing”, in water or other liquid to activate it and can thus be added directly to the flour and other dry ingredients. Moreover, instant dry yeast contains more live cells than active dry yeast, further facilitating its activation. Once in the flour, the instant dry yeast can tolerate liquid temperatures of 120-130 degrees F. Because of all these factors, the instant dry yeast will start to work faster than active dry yeast. Like active dry yeast, advantages of instant dry yeast include convenience of use and long storage life, especially when sealed and frozen in an airtight container.

JOHNS (Pamela Sheldon): A cookbook author known in pizza circles for her book, Pizza Napoletana!, devoted to Neapolitan-style pizzas. For a review of this book, see the book review section of the pizzamaking.com site.

KA: An abbreviation for King Arthur Flour Company, a well-known source of baking ingredients, and highly regarded for its high-quality, unbleached, unbromated flours with tight milling specifications and generally higher protein levels than competing brands. While King Arthur has a retail store in White River Junction, VT, it does a substantial mail-order business through The Baker’s Catalogue, its periodically published catalogue, and also via its website at http://shop.bakerscatalogue.com/items/.

KAAP: An abbreviation for the King Arthur All-Purpose flour, a high-quality all-purpose flour available from the King Arthur Flour Company and intended for use as a general-purpose baking flour. The KAAP has a protein content of 11.7% and is made from 100% domestic wheat. It is a malted flour, to improve enzyme performance. The KAAP is widely available in supermarkets and other food emporiums throughout the country.

KABF: An abbreviation for the King Arthur Bread Flour, a high-quality bread flour available from the King Arthur Bread Company and intended for applications where a high protein flour is beneficial, including pizza dough. The KABF has a protein content of 12.7%. It is malted to improve enzyme performance. The KABF is available in many supermarkets and other food emporiums throughout the country.

KASL: An abbreviation for King Arthur Sir Lancelot, a high-quality, high protein, high-gluten  flour available from the King Arthur Flour Company and in larger quantities (50-lb. bags) from various bakery distributors, foodservice companies and other intermediaries, some of whom will sell to individuals on a cash-and-carry basis. The KASL is not presently sold at the retail store level. The KASL is made from 100% hard red spring wheat, is malted to increase enzyme performance, and has a protein level of 14.2 +/- 2%, an ash level of 0.52 +/- 0.02%, and an absorption rate of 63 +/- 2%. The KASL tolerates a long dough fermentation time and will exhibit greater browning and chewiness in the finished crust than other flours. These characteristics of the flour make it especially suitable for thin New York style pizzas. Because of its high gluten content, King Arthur does not recommend hand kneading doughs made from the KASL.

KOSHER SALT: A form of salt produced through the use of evaporation processes but having a larger particle size (and different shape) than ordinary table salt. Kosher salts usually contain no additives. Kosher salt can be substituted for table salt in recipes, but because of its larger particle size, it is often recommended that the amount of the Kosher salt substituted be about 1 1/2 to 2 times the amount of table salt, by volume. As a matter of convenience, producers of some brands of Kosher salt suggest using the same amount of Kosher salt as table salt, by volume. 

LEHMANN (Tom): Director of Baking Assistance at the American Institute of Baking (AIB), Manhattan, KS, and a technical advisor and consultant to the pizza industry. He is an acknowledged expert on pizza dough and its commercial production and management and is a frequent contributor on such matters at the Pizza Marketing Quarterly (PMQ) and Pizza Today, including their online forums. He is frequently referred to as the “Dough Doctor”.

LEVAIN: A French term for a natural preferment that is essentially synonymous (in the U.S.) with sourdough. It is a culture of a naturally-occurring (wild) yeast and bacteria that can leaven and flavor a bread or pizza crust. It is refreshed periodically by replacement of a part of the culture by new flour and water, and a portion of the refreshed culture is allowed to ferment and mature (ripen) before incorporating into the final dough. The remainder of the culture is used to begin the next batch of dough. A levain, or “sourdough”, can be perpetuated for many years, even centuries for certain highly-stable strains.

NON-DIASTATIC MALT: A diastatic malt without the enzyme activity capability and commonly used for flavoring, color, and crust browning purposes. Available in liquid or dry form, it is sweet and flavorful and can be used in lieu of other sweeteners, and caramelizes well and contributes to browning. However, it isn’t the same as and doesn’t operate like diastatic malt and consequently shouldn’t be confused with diastatic malt.

OLD DOUGH: See PATE FERMENTE

OSTRANDER (Dave): A former independent pizza operator and now a consultant to the pizza industry. He is also a frequent contributor to the Pizza Marketing Quarterly (PMQ), including its online forum. He is well known for his “Old Faithful” pizza dough recipes which have been used by pizza operators all around the world to make over 2 million pounds of dough. He is an acknowledged expert on the management of pizza operations, from startup to mature business. Ostrander is often referred to as the “Pizza Doctor” or, more commonly, “Big Dave”.

OVEN SPRING: The rapid increase and final burst in the expansion of dough once it is loaded into the oven. The dough expansion will cease as soon as the temperature of the dough reaches about 140 degrees F, at which point the yeast dies. There are many factors that influence the degree and quality of the oven spring when baking pizzas, including overall dough quality (it should not be stiff or overkneaded, and it should have good hydration), the amount of yeast in the dough as of the time of baking, the degree of fermentation (it should not be underfermented or overfermented), and oven temperature. The manner in which the pizza is baked, that is, whether using a pan, stone/tiles, or pizza screen, will also be a factor.

OXIDATION: As applied to pizza dough, the term means a chemical reaction that takes place when air is incorporated into the dough, as by mixing and kneading. The effect is to reinforce the gluten bonds and strengthen the dough and increase the hydration capacity of the dough. However, excessive oxidation, which can occur if the dough is kneaded too long, can have the adverse effect of destroying caretenoid pigments naturally present in the flour and result in a loss of color and taste in the finished crust. This is one of the reasons why an autolyse period is often used since the autolyse will have the effect of shortening the overall kneading time.

PAR-BAKE: The partial baking of a dough, without anything on it, to prepare a partially-baked crust, or “shell”, to be used to prepare a finished pizza at a later date. Until then, the par-baked crust is refrigerated or frozen (or kept at room temperature for near-term use). When a finished pizza is to be made, the partially-baked crust is dressed with sauce, cheeses and other toppings and baked until done.

PARCHMENT PAPER: A paper that has been treated with sulfuric acid and coated with silicone. The sulfuric acid makes the surface of the paper smooth so that it resists grease and moisture and tolerates high oven temperatures. The silicone coating prevents foods from sticking. Instead of using a peel, some home pizza makers use parchment paper on which to build their pizzas before loading into the oven. Parchment paper is not wax paper, which is paper coated with a paraffin wax.

PASTRY FLOUR: A relatively low-protein flour typically milled from soft white/red winter wheat and primarily used for pastries. However, it can be combined with other flours, including all-purpose, cake flour and bread flour, to simulate an imported Italian 00 flour for use in making Neapolitan-style pizzas. The flour has a typical protein content of 8.5-9.5%.

PATE FERMENTE: A French term used to mean a slightly-aged prefermented dough. In one version, the pate fermente is made by combining a starter, such as a sourdough starter, and flour and water, and the combination is left to rise and then refrigerated overnight or, in some cases, for several days before incorporating it into the final dough. In another form, often referred to as a chef or “old dough”, a portion of one day’s dough production is taken and used in the next day’s production. Consequently, the removed dough has the same ingredients as the dough batch from which it was taken, including flour, water, commercial yeast and salt. In both forms, the hydration of the pate fermente is established to be reasonably close to the hydration of the finished dough into which the pate fermente is to be incorporated.

« Last Edit: November 14, 2005, 01:47:32 PM by Pete-zza »

Offline Pete-zza

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Re: Glossary
« Reply #22 on: November 14, 2005, 01:29:58 PM »
PEEL: A paddle with a long handle attached to a rectangular or round portion called a blade, and used for depositing and removing pizzas from the oven. Peels generally come in wood and metal versions. The wood version is considered by many to be the most effective for depositing an unbaked pizza into the oven, and the metal version, which has a very thin blade, is considered by many to be the most effective for removing a baked pizza from the oven. Some small metal peels can be used for both functions, especially for small pizzas (e.g., Neapolitan-style pizzas). Many bakers use both wooden and metal versions of peels.

PIZZAIOLO: A term most commonly associated with an Italian pizza maker, especially one with skills in making and baking Neapolitan pizzas, particularly in a high-temperature wood-fired oven, with exceptional skills in managing and mastering the use of the oven for high volume production.

PIZZA STONE: A flat slab of material, such as a ceramic, clay or other refractory material, or a lead-free firebrick material (cordierite), or soapstone material, that can be preheated at high oven temperatures (in excess of 500 degrees F) to permit a pizza to be baked on it. The pizza stone usually is rectangular or round with a typical thickness of about 1/2 to 7/8 inch. 

POOLISH: A French term with Polish origins that is used to mean a preferment that is made with equal amounts of flour and water (which produces a pancake-like batter with a hydration of 100%), and a small amount of commercial yeast, but no salt. It is usually left to ferment and ripen at room temperature for several hours, although it is sometimes refrigerated for many hours (e.g., overnight) before incorporating into the final dough. The term poolish is pronounced poo-leash.

PRE-BAKE: To partially bake a dough, for a few to several minutes, without anything on the dough, for the purpose of creating a greater rise in the crust or, in some cases (as with a cracker-type crust), to allow the crust to dry out before adding sauce, cheeses and other toppings and completing the baking.

PREFERMENT: A partial preparation of flour and water and yeast (naturally-occurring or commercial), that may or may not include salt, that is left to ferment and mature before incorporating into the final dough. The ingredients and period of fermentation are controlled to achieve the desired leavening power and maturation (ripening) before incorporation into the final dough. The preferment can be fermented at room temperature or under refrigeration, or a combination of both. Depending on its final intended use, it can take a liquid form, semi-liquid form (like a batter) or it can be stiff and dough-like. The benefits from using a preferment include a strengthened gluten structure, a shortened overall production time, and superior crust flavor.

PROOF: A term often used in bread baking to describe the final rise of the bread dough while it is in the pan or bread board just prior to baking. The term is often somewhat erroneously used in the context of pizza doughs to describe the process of fermentation. It is more correctly applied to the process by which certain doughs, such as deep-dish doughs or Sicilian-style doughs, are permitted to rise, or “proof”, either at room temperature or in a proofing unit (often with humidity), in advance of dressing and baking.

RAPID-RISE (OR QUICK-RISE) YEAST: A form of instant dry yeast (IDY).

REINHART (Peter): Chef on Assignment at Johnson and Wales University (a culinary institute), in Charlotte, NC. Is a consultant to the baking industry and food companies and a frequent lecturer on baking matters, and a well-known author of cookbooks on bread baking. Is the author of American Pie: My Search for the Perfect Pizza. For a review of this book, see the book review section of the pizzamaking.com site.

REST PERIOD: See AUTOLYSE.

RETARDED DOUGH: See COLD FERMENTATION.

RIPEN: A term commonly applied to certain preferments to describe the maturation of the preferment, as evidenced by the preferment having achieved a fully risen state (domed) and on the verge of receding or falling back at the center. In the case of a poolish or sponge, the ripening is indicated by the presence of small carbon dioxide bubbles at the surface of the poolish with cracks and signs of collapsing. The term ripen is also sometimes used to refer to a dough that has fermented to the point where the dough has peaked and should be used before it overferments and starts to recede or collapse.

SAN MARZANO: A varietal of tomatoes from the Naples region of Campania, Italy and grown on vesuvial volcanic soils. The San Marzano tomatoes (the varietal) are elongated, firm, plum-like tomatoes with fewer seed cavities than most tomatoes. They also have a naturally low-acid content. The San Marzano tomatoes sold in cans may or may not bear the D.O.P. designation. However, those that do will have a special numbered label, and will indicate the region around Naples, such as the Agro Sarnese-Nocerino region, where the San Marzano tomatoes were grown. Cans not bearing the D.O.P. label may be of questionable provenance.

SCREEN: A round, expanded, metal (usually aluminum) screen with a beaded outer rim. Because of the open character of the screen, air circulating beneath a pizza placed on the screen can readily permeate the screen and provide uniform baking of the pizza and browning of the bottom of the crust. Pizza screens come in a wide variety of sizes, from about 6 inches to over 20 inches. To see what a typical pizza screen looks like, go to http://www.pizzatools.com/productdisplay.aspx?catid=57. Although pizza screens are usually round, they also come in rectangular shapes.

SEA SALT: A form of salt formed from evaporation of seawater at ordinary atmospheric temperature and pressure and then harvested. It has a larger particle size than ordinary table salt, and can come in different particle size gradations, including very coarse, which may require grinding in a mill or mortar and pestle before using for applications requiring small particle size, such as pizza dough making (although it can be used as a condiment on top of a finished pizza). Sea salts include naturally occurring beneficial minerals such as calcium and magnesium and are free of additives, such as anti-caking and anti-clumping chemicals and dextrose, as are commonly added, along with iodide (usually potassium iodide), to ordinary table salts. In the context of pizza dough, Sicilian sea salts are considered by some to be particularly useful because of their high hygroscopicity capacity (their capacity to absorb water).

SEMOLINA: A coarse, granular flour product with bright yellow color produced by milling durum wheat, a high-protein, high-gluten wheat. A typical protein content for semolina flour is around 12-13%. The semolina flour is available in coarse and fine grades. It is frequently combined with other flours, at a rate of up to 25%, to produce a chewy finished crust.

SKIN: A term of art used by pizza makers to describe a dough round that has been shaped and stretched or rolled out from a dough ball into a pizza round (or other shape) in preparation for dressing and baking. 

SOURDOUGH: See LEVAIN.

SPONGE: A preferment similar to a poolish or biga. It can include part of the flour and yeast and all or a part of the water to be used in the final dough, and is combined with additional flour, water, yeast and salt to make the final dough. The sponge can be allowed to ferment and mature (ripen) at room temperature, under refrigeration, or a combination of both.

STARTER: See PREFERMENT.

STONE: See PIZZA STONE.

THICKNESS FACTOR: A number often used within the pizza industry to correspond to a particular pizza crust thickness, from “thin” to “medium” to “thick”. The thickness factor is used in a mathematical expression to calculate the amount of dough that is needed to make a pizza of any given size (diameter) and desired thickness. The thickness factor of an existing dough can also be calculated from the weight of the dough and the size of pizza made from that dough. Typical values of thickness factors for “thin”, “medium” and “thick” crusts are 0.10, 0.11, and 0.12-0.13, respectively. Thickness factors for deep-dish doughs will usually be higher (above 0.13).and for cracker-type or other thin crusts they will often be lower (around 0.05).

TILES: Unglazed, fired, quarry clay tiles used in arrangements of one or more layers on an oven rack or grill for use as an alternative to pizza stones for baking pizzas. The tiles are most commonly found in ceramic tile stores or home improvement stores (such as Home Depot and Lowe’s), with typical sizes of 6” x 6”, 8” x 8” or 4” x 8” (and generally about 1/2-inch thick). Since food is to be cooked on the tiles, for health reasons it is very important that the tiles be unglazed.

VWG: See VITAL WHEAT GLUTEN.

VITAL WHEAT GLUTEN (VWG): A dried wheat protein of high-gluten, hard wheat grain that has had all of the starch removed and is then dried. It is frequently used to supplement other flours to increase the overall protein level of such flours. Vital wheat gluten has a typical gluten content of about 45% and a protein content of about 75%. Its recommended use is at the rate of 1 to 2 teaspoons for each cup of flour or 2-3% by weight of flour. Each 1% addition of vital wheat gluten increases the protein content of the flour to which it is added by 0.6%.

VITAMIN C: See ASCORBIC ACID.

Offline Steve

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Re: Glossary
« Reply #23 on: November 15, 2005, 10:50:08 AM »
The prototype glossary is online at:

http://www.pizzamaking.com/pizza_glossary.html

Again, this is only a prototype. I'll be tweaking and making changes to it over the next several weeks.

Your suggestions will be very helpful (and appreciated) in making this the most comprehensive pizza making glossary on the Internet.
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Offline David

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Re: Glossary
« Reply #24 on: November 15, 2005, 11:22:23 AM »
Great work Peter /Steve.Thanks
If you're looking for a date... go to the Supermarket.If you're looking for a wife....go to the Farmers market

Offline Bill/SFNM

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Re: Glossary
« Reply #25 on: November 15, 2005, 12:51:00 PM »
Wonderful resource. Are you going to manually update it? It would great if members could annotate definitions with comments. Also, an alphabetical toolbar on the top so I can press the letter "P" and be automatically taken to the entries starting with "P".

Great job!

Bill/SFNM

Offline Steve

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Re: Glossary
« Reply #26 on: November 15, 2005, 01:49:54 PM »
I plan to add types of pizzas and more ingredients. And yes, I'll add an alphabetical toolbar.
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Offline Steve

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Re: Glossary
« Reply #27 on: November 16, 2005, 09:06:58 PM »
The new glossary is now "officially" online and is listed on the main menu of the website.

PLEASE -- look over the glossary and let me know of any errors (or any new terms that you'd like to see.)

Thank you!!

http://www.pizzamaking.com/pizza_glossary.html
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Offline Pete-zza

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Re: Glossary
« Reply #28 on: November 16, 2005, 10:58:21 PM »
Steve,

I think the glossary looks good with the additional terms.

The only quibble I have is with the description of "peel". I use a wooden peel to load a pizza into the oven and a metal peel to remove it or to shift it from one part of the oven to another. I also use a metal peel to remove a screen with a pizza on it from the oven or to move it around in the oven. About the only place I have seen where the metal peel is used for both functions is for small Neapolitan-style pizzas which can be slid or lifted onto a metal peel, even when fully dressed. I guess I am in the same camp as Tom Lehmann who described his preferences as follows:

"The wood peels are the only way to go for peeling the pizzas into the oven. I guess I'd have to say that my approach is wood in, metal out with a handle as long as your arm for added leaverage and control."

I couldn't function well with only one type of peel but I will abide by the preferences of the members on this one :).

As for additional terms, maybe we should have something on "disk" and a "release agent", which could cover the use of cornmeal and other release agents that can be used on a peel. Maybe definitions for "Provel" and "Old Forge" also. I can take a stab at writing these up if you wish, although I'm sure that someone from northeast PA can do a much better job with Old Forge than I. Since 6-in-1s and Stanislaus come up quite often, should there be descriptions of those also?

Peter

Offline Steve

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Re: Glossary
« Reply #29 on: November 17, 2005, 08:43:33 AM »
Thanks, Peter. I've changed the definition for "PEEL." I also added definitions for Release Agent, 6 IN 1, and Provel cheese.
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Offline cdodson

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Re: Glossary
« Reply #30 on: November 17, 2005, 09:04:32 AM »
Peter and Steve,

You guys are outdoing yourselves once again.  I've been reading various books that were discovered via this site and I still learn more by reading these posts.  The addition of the glossary is another crucial step in my education at "Pizza Making University".  :)
Carey

The power of cheese

Offline Lydia

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Re: Glossary
« Reply #31 on: November 21, 2005, 02:20:04 AM »
Wow! Glossary is looking Great!

Pat Bruno Jr. mentioned in one of his articles from "Pizza Today" that Peperoni, spelled with one "p" is referencing the "pepper"  like a bell pepper, two p's is the sausage/salami.

I cant remember the date for the article. Sorry

The roundest knight at King Arthur's round table was Sir Cumference.They say he acquired his size from eating too much pi.