Been busy with yard work the last few days, sorry.
There are no beers that are intentionally drank at room temperature that I can think of, but, cellar temperature (54 deg. F) is appropriate for most ales. English ales, commonly referred to as Real Ale in that country, are consumed at 54 def. F exclusively and are also of very low carbonation (1 atm. CO2 at 54 deg. F). This is the warm, flat, English beer people often refer to. I'm actually a bit of an expert on conditioning this style of beer and enjoy it immensely. Beers in widget cans try to emulate this product, somewhat successfully.
As to warming beer for dough use, absolutely. You would want to treat the beer used in dough making the same as you would the water component. My dough recipe calls for a finished temperature at around 85 deg. F for which I add water (under normal conditions) around 112 to 115 deg. F. Warming the beer in the microwave (carefully) would be fine.
As to temperature affecting flavor...Its a huge deal. The general rule is that lagers which are fermented cold should be drank cold, around 40 deg. F. (lager initial fermentation temp is 50 F. with an extended "lagering" or storage phase at 38 to 40 F) Ales which are fermented warm (Fermentation around 68 F) should be drank warmer, that's where the 54 deg. F "cellar temperature" comes in to play. I use wine refrigerators to store my better ales, especially those that are aged. If a beer is too cold when poured, I'll wait, hands wrapped around the glass until it warms to the proper temperature (proper being where I like it). There are all sorts of exceptions the this rule but mostly its a good guide.
Try getting a quality Pale Ale from a good Microbrewery or Craft Brewery, put it in the fridge and let it get cold. Open the beer and pour it into a glass and take a sip. Note the flavors and the balance between the hops and malt and any other flavors present, esters from the fermentation, phenolic off tones etc. Now, take a critical taste every few minutes as the glass warms and you will notice a pronounced shift in the balance between sweet malt and hop flavors and expression of fermentation esters (fruity flavors). If you have a thermometer, take its temperature and see where you feel the balance of flavors is best. Also examine the aroma with the temperature changes.
Always drink a beer from a glass and never the bottle or can. The narrow mouth does not allow the aromas to be inhaled while drinking and throws the flavor profile off considerably, try it. Different beers require different glassware to maximize the drinking experience, look to the brewer for suggestions of glassware until you learn the differences...guess I better stop here. I can wax all day on this subject.