Author Topic: Solid Fat  (Read 3549 times)

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Offline charbo

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Solid Fat
« on: June 30, 2012, 08:35:35 PM »
Various scientific papers and professional references indicate that a small amount of solid fat, such as lard, shortening, or butter, enhances bread volume.  The gain is at least 10%.  The amount of fat usually recommended is 3% of flour.  Sometimes a little more is recommended, especially for whole grain flour.
 
No scientific or professional source that I could find says that oil will work for the purpose of enhancing rise.  In fact, melting solid fat before incorporation into the dough will diminish the effect of increasing volume.  However, Laurel Robertson thinks larger amounts of oil enhance rise.

Iím not sure if the above technique is applicable to pizza.  However, since I use whole wheat, rise is always an issue.  My experiments with solid fat are incomplete.  So far, it seems to work; but I miss the flavor of olive oil.

Has anyone else tried this technique?


Online Tscarborough

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #1 on: June 30, 2012, 09:48:34 PM »
Yes, it works well for cracker type crusts.

Offline pizzaneer

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #2 on: June 30, 2012, 10:27:37 PM »
I'd rather eat one good meal a day than 3 squares of garbage.

Offline norma427

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #3 on: June 30, 2012, 11:05:18 PM »
charbo,

If you are interested, you can see what Peter posted at Reply 1094 http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php/topic,9068.msg191428.html#msg191428 about the MFB being put into the dough in a solid state.  I want to try different doughs out with MFB to see what happens as soon as I find time.

In the next few posts I did try out the MFB and the crust did taste good without olive oil.  I also tried the MFB out in Novemberís dessert dough and also liked the taste.

Norma
« Last Edit: July 01, 2012, 08:13:54 AM by norma427 »
Always working and looking for new information!

Offline patdakat345

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #4 on: July 01, 2012, 06:44:11 AM »
Since I do a lot of BBQ and make my own sausage, I had a lot of fat trimmings left over. As a result, I render the fat and make my own lard.
Unlike what is in the store, when I can get it, is unhydrogenated lard.
Whats left are the cracklings or as the say in Italy ciciolli. These can be used for incorporating into a bread, sprinkled on salads or gratins or
eaten as is.
The newest research completely reverses that lard is bad for you. It is salt free, less cholesterol than eggs, better than vegetable oil in that the fats are less harmful.
Back to the question. I have been using it my pizza dough. I find that the same weight of lard substituted for the oil works fine.
It is easier to roll out, I get a higher rise, no less browning or crispiness on the bottom of the crust. I'm satisfied with the results and so are the other eight or 10 people
that I make pizza for every week.

pat

Offline Bill/SFNM

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #5 on: July 01, 2012, 07:16:56 AM »
Freshly-rendered lard drizzled over the top of a pizza before baking can also be delicious.

BTW, if I ever become a rapper, "solid phat" would be a good name.

Online Pete-zza

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #6 on: July 01, 2012, 09:11:36 AM »
charbo,

According to Tom Lehmann, oil in the dough contributes to the volume/height in the finished crust, as he indicates in his PMQ Think Tank post at http://thinktank.pmq.com/viewtopic.php?p=50069#p50069.

Peter

Offline TXCraig1

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #7 on: July 01, 2012, 09:40:59 AM »
Freshly-rendered lard drizzled over the top of a pizza before baking can also be delicious.

What doesn't lard make better???
Pizza is not bread.

Offline TXCraig1

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #8 on: July 01, 2012, 09:45:07 AM »
You mention freshly rendered lard, and now all I can think of is donuts. We really need that drool emoticon.

And, donuts always make me this of my favorite Simpson's quote - which is particularly relevent in this case.

"Oh, but these donuts were made the old fashioned way. The dough sweetened with Cuban sugar from pre-Batista plantations, and fried in the tallow of three different animals, two of which are now extinct."
Pizza is not bread.

Offline TXCraig1

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #9 on: July 01, 2012, 09:46:51 AM »
Ummmmmm.....
Pizza is not bread.


Offline Bill/SFNM

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #10 on: July 01, 2012, 10:56:32 AM »
Larger Mexican markets that make their own chicharron usually sell tubs of freshly rendered lard. Its deep porky flavor is the secret ingredient in many of my dishes. A tub of fresh lard and another of bacon grease are always in my refrigerator.   

Offline bfguilford

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #11 on: July 01, 2012, 01:47:06 PM »
What doesn't lard make better???

Ummm... a vegetarian's temperament???  ;D
« Last Edit: July 01, 2012, 02:00:22 PM by bfguilford »
Light travels faster than sound. That's why some people appear bright until you hear them speak.

Offline TXCraig1

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #12 on: July 01, 2012, 02:57:59 PM »
Ummm... a vegetarian's temperament???  ;D

 :-D
Pizza is not bread.

Offline charbo

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #13 on: July 09, 2012, 10:30:40 PM »
I am attaching a link to a scientific report by Bruinsma and Finney showing that a small amount of oil plus a surfactant equals the loaf volume increase of using shortening alone.  The focus of the article is on certain uses of surfactants, which is not the purpose of my original post.  However, the report also shows that 2% shortening alone raises final bread volume about 10% and that it takes three times as much oil for a similar volume increase.  Unfortunately, olive oil was not tested.
http://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/backissues/1984/Documents/Chem61_279.pdf

Among the indicated references is a report by Baker and Mize in 1942 entitled ďThe relation of fats to texture, crumb, and volume of bread.Ē  There are many references to the Baker & Mize report on the internet, but I havenít been able to find the report itself.  It seems to be the foundation for this area of research.

In a pizza, modest volume increases are hard to see without side-by-side comparisons.  My experiments seem positive, but are incomplete.  I wish I had a local source of leaf lard.

Offline pizzaneer

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #14 on: July 10, 2012, 07:57:41 AM »
Charbo,
  heres a link to a seller of leaf lard: http://www.mountainfolk.com/dietrich.asp  They are in PA, but ship all over the country.  
  Alternatively, you could look up your local Amish or Mennonite communities, German butcher, or organic pig farm.  
I'm interested in seeing your experimental results of leaf lard / shortening vs. OO. 10% rise gain is a lot.
« Last Edit: July 10, 2012, 07:59:34 AM by pizzaneer »
I'd rather eat one good meal a day than 3 squares of garbage.

Offline The Dough Doctor

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #15 on: July 10, 2012, 08:52:04 AM »
Charbo;
The inclusion of fat into a dough formulation (up to a point) improves volume response through better gas retention and lubrication of the dough structure. You can read about this in S. Matz book or E.J. Pyler's Baking Science and Technology. When the fat content goes much above 6% of the flour weight it actually begins to reduce bread volume. More current research has shown that just adding oil or melted shortening to the dough can, under certain circumstances, lead to inconsistencies in the dough (we think this is where the impressing that the outside weather influences dough absorption properties), this is why we developed the delayed oil addition method of dough mixing. By this method the oil is not added until the flour has had an opportunity to hydrate, the oil is then added and the dough mixed in the normal manner. The reason for this is due to the fact that oil will soak into the flour thus reducing the amount of gluten that can be formed, resulting in variations in dough consistency. Since solid fats do cannot soak into the flour they can be added right up front with the other ingredients. In a nutshell, that's the story of oil and solid fat in a dough system.
Tom Lehmann/The Dough Doctor

Offline pizzaneer

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #16 on: July 10, 2012, 09:11:11 AM »
Doc,
  thank you for a very clear and concise explanation.  I'm altering my next dough procedure.  I can't wait to see what difference using:
1. bacon fat, mixed straight in at initial ingredient incorporation
2. OO, added after initial mix, before bowl mix
makes.

I'd rather eat one good meal a day than 3 squares of garbage.

Online Pete-zza

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #17 on: July 10, 2012, 11:43:46 AM »
Brian,

In a home setting using my basic KitchenAid stand mixer with a C-hook, I found that I can use the delayed oil method if the amount of oil is small, say, a few percent. However, if it gets to around 4% or more, I have trouble incorporating the oil using the delayed method. I have to physically remove the dough ball from the mixer bowl and incorporate the oil by hand. That is a very messy job. I can then put the dough ball back into the mixer bowl to complete the knead. A food processor is more likely to do a better job with the delayed oil method.

When using a lot of oil, as has been the case with many of my Papa John's clone doughs, which call for about 7% oil, I simply mix the oil in with the water, to avoid the problem mentioned above.

Peter

Offline pizzaneer

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #18 on: July 10, 2012, 12:19:23 PM »
Not a problem for me, Peter, though I'm sure anyone with a stand mixer can use that information.
I use a handheld electric drill, so I can target any unmixed zones easily.
I'd rather eat one good meal a day than 3 squares of garbage.

Offline The Dough Doctor

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Re: Solid Fat
« Reply #19 on: July 10, 2012, 03:52:20 PM »
That bacon fat pizza sounds mighty good. Crispy bacon pieces are one of my favorite toppings.
Tom Lehmann/The Dough Doctor