From a food safety stand point there should not be any issues with a yeast leavened dough in the cooler, but as the dough ages, even under refrigeration, it continues to develop the byproducts of fermentation (acids, alcohol, and carbon dioxide) and all of these will slowly take their toll on the dough, specifically the protein content. If you can mix the dough cold, and then get it into a cold refrigerator (34 to 36F) two to three weeks is not uncommon. It all depends upon how well you are able to manage the dough temperature as well as the temperature at which the dough is being held. Remember, even just plain yeast has a maximum refrigerated shelf life of 30-days, though significant deterioration will normally take place inside of two weeks refrigerated storage. Since a good deal of the flavor results from a denaturing of protein during the baking process, as a dough continues to age in the cooler, more of the proteins in the flour are damaged and denatured during baking to provide a "different" or changing flavor, which can be a good thing, or it can be a bad thing depending upon your perspective and your likes.
Tom Lehmann/The Dough Doctor