In the U.S., Papa John's stores get their dough balls from one of about eleven commissaries scattered around the country, typically on a twice a week delivery schedule. Over time, I'm sure that the commissaries get to know how many dough balls to deliver to each store. Typically, a PJ dough ball is ready to use at around three days but it is not optimal at that point. Depending on the cooler equipment available at any given store and, more specifically, its cooling capacity and how often the cooler doors are opened and closed, a PJ dough ball can last up to about eight days. I read somewhere that if a cooler is not opened at all after dough balls are put into it, a PJ dough ball can last nine days. With such a wide window, a given PJ store can have a fairly large supply of dough balls in inventory to minimize the possibility of running out.
But, on occasion, PJ can run out of dough. But it is usually because of something like a fundraiser or where they offer specials on their pizzas at dirt bottom prices, like 23 cents or something like that. I suppose it is also possible that one PJ store will help another PJ store by sharing or lending some dough balls if such a capability exists, given that they are unlikely to be competing with each other.