Just because they argue in Italy (and BTW, that link is such a rough translation, how can you tell what points they are really trying to make?) about what is IN a calzone doesn't prove your point about New Haven being the cradle of the calzone. In Italy, they'll argue about just about anything... or rather, everything... because there are as many different calzone fillings are there are people making them! Just as every recipe for minestrone, for instance, is different based on season, household and/or region of Italy, the same is true of other working class food.
In my go-to food reference "Food Lover's Companion" by Sharon Tyler Herbst,
she defines calzones:
"Originating in Naples, calzone is a half-moon shaped stuffed pizza. It is usually made as an individual serving. The fillings can be various meats, vegetables or cheese; mozzarella is the cheese used most frequently. Calzones can be deep fried or brushed with olive oil and baked"
She defines stromboli:
"A specialty of Philadelphia, a stromboli is an enclosed calzonelike sandwich of cheese (usually mozzarella) and pepperoni (or other meat) wrapped in pizza dough."
Nota Bene: she said "a specialty of Philadelphia" not INVENTED in Philadelphia. Also, the italic emphasis is mine, esp. "wrapped" meaning that it is NOT half moon shaped... it is wrapped, therefore more tubular. I think you have your definitions confused. You can call a dog "cat" if you like and all you want, but that doesn't make it a cat.
To be honest, I am not familiar with ricotta in a calzone until this thread, so, don't lump me in with the "we as Americans are familiar with" because I've never heard of it! I have always heard that a calzone was filled with mozz or prov. Yes, I live on the Left Coast, but I have spent many years on the East Coast, mostly in NE Pennsy and Virginia. My time in CT was spent in Groton. So, if you want to claim a RICOTTA filled calzone as the New Haven VERSION, more power to you... but the calzone itself is a child of Naples. Even Lombardi's, the known birthplace of American Pizza doesn't have the effrontery to claim they invented it!