It might help to give you some background on the Caputo 00 Pizzeria flour and how it can be used.
The Caputo 00 Pizzeria flour can be used in many ways but it has to be compatible with the particular dough formulation and dough management method chosen. For example, you can use the Caputo 00 flour with a commercial yeast, as is typically done in Naples using fresh yeast, and be able to use the dough several hours later, typically 7-8 hours later. In that case, the dough is allowed to ferment at room temperature. The Caputo Pizzeria flour can also be used with a natural preferment, and the dough can be subjected to a much longer room temperature fermentation that can easily go over 20 hours in some cases. A third possibility is to use a preferment and a long period of cold fermentation. This is basically what Jeff does. A fourth possibility is to use a commercial yeast in lieu of the the preferment, which is the approach you chose to use. Depending on which of the four approaches someone elects to use, the formulation and management of the dough have to be compatible. We know that what Jeff does works because he has been doing it for a very long time with exceptional results.
My best guess is that your problems arose because of insufficient fermentation of the dough. You were using a very small amount of yeast for over a pound of flour, and if the yeast wasn't properly and completely dispersed within the flour, the dough may not have developed and fermented properly. If the fresh yeast was losing its freshness, which can happen easily with fresh yeast, then that could have been a factor also. You didn't specifically indicate how you incorporated the fresh yeast into the dough, but the approach most commonly used is to dissolve the yeast in the water or crumble it into the flour. If you waited until after the autolyse to add the yeast, and if the yeast wasn't properly and completely incorporated into the dough at that time, then that could have been another factor working against getting proper fermentation. And, although the dough looked fine, it may not have been.
Even if the dough was in great shape coming out of the mixer bowl, it was still possible that the dough didn't get sufficient fermentation because of insufficient time in the refrigerator. Jeff recommends 1-4 days in the refrigerator for a good reason. It is because his dough formulation was designed for that length of time and type of fermentation. When a dough is under refrigeration, it sort of goes into a state of hibernation. Both the yeast and the enzymes in flour prefer and work better in a warm temperature environment. But if sufficient time is given to the dough while in the refrigerator, the dough will still develop through biochemical development and produce a usable dough. Cutting the fermentation time to about 12-13 hours as you did may well have been too short.
From your description of the dough, particularly the wetness and stickiness, it sounds like the hydration percent may have been too high also. You didn't indicate whether you lightly oiled the dough before putting it in the zip-type storage bag, but if you didn't do that then it could have stuck to the storage bag and made it exceedingly difficult to extract from the bag without mangling it. What I do when I use a storage bag is to inflate the bag using a straw (after the dough has been oiled and placed within the bag), and then close the bag shut while it is in its inflated state. This keeps the dough from sticking to the inside top of the bag. Next time you may want to use that approach or else use a container such as Jeff recommends. Jeff is an extremely meticulous person, and whatever he does is done after much contemplation and for a good reason.
I'm sure that handling the dough under the circumstances you described was a real challenge and a frustrating experience. That is something we all experience at one time or another so you shouldn't let it get you down. However, as Tony pointed out, when you combined the two dough balls and reshaped them, that made matters worse. Trying to stretch the dough out at that point can easily lead to holes and tears forming. Adding more flour and trying to work the dough with the added flour rarely solves the problem. And when you bake a dough in that condition, it will not bake up properly. Sometimes you can recover from this situation by letting the dough relax again, for up to an hour or more, and then gently handling it as you shape it into a dough round. Unfortunately, this doesn't always work, or the results are mediocre.†
In your case, you can decide to give the dough another try and follow all the steps as suggested by Jeff in his instructions at his website. Or you can try another dough formulation. Having tried several if not most of the many possible approaches, I would say that if you want to continue to use the Caputo flour the easiest approach is to use the flour with commercial yeast in a same-day room-temperature fermentation. Jeff's use of a natural preferment is better in my opinion, but requires more work and more experience. But I don't see any reason why you can't use Jeff's dough preparation techniques, including autolyse and other rest periods. If you want to use fresh yeast again, we should be able to tell you how to best incorporate it into the dough. Other changes may also be required since you do not use the high oven temperatures that Jeff uses.