Most of the major pizza chains like Pizza Hut, Papa John's, Domino's and Little Caesar's use commissaries to make the dough. The dough can be fresh but, increasingly, the big boys are going to frozen dough. I believe that even for the pan pizzas that Canadianbacon mentioned, Pizza Hut is now using frozen skins that are placed in pans at the store level to defrost and rise. I believe that Pizza Hut is pretty close to using all frozen dough, and rumors are afloat that another major pizza operator is on the verge of doing the same thing. Donato's, which is nowhere near as big as the big four, is also using frozen dough skins. All of this is being done to cut costs by more completely standardizing the dough preparation and management processes. Some of the smaller chains still make the dough at the store level but even they have simplified the processes by using premixes that require only the addition of water, which is something that can be handled by minimum-wage workers with little or no experience. Many independent operators still make their own dough but there are also quite a few who outsource this part of the business to companies that make either fresh or frozen dough balls.
When dough is made fresh by the commissaries, as does Papa John's, for example, the dough is made using small amounts of yeast and the dough balls are maintained at low controlled temperatures to allow enough time to get the dough balls to their destination (the individual stores) in usable form. I believe that deliveries to stores are made about twice a week. Once the dough balls get into the stores, the operators there are supposed to use the dough balls within a specified period of time. I would imagine that the dough balls are allowed to temper at room temperature for about an hour or so after removing them from the cooler, but I have read that this step is often abused by the operators. Some apparently use the dough balls without tempering them at all whereas others let the dough balls warm up too much. The corporate guys in suits don't like this because it can result in an inconsistent product. Profits is the name of the game. Of the top four, I believe that only Little Caesar's is not a public company with shareholders to worry about.