I noticed recently that some members have indicated interest in a so-called “short-time” or “emergency” dough for the American style pizza, such as a Papa John’s American style. That got me to wondering whether I could come up with a quality clone dough formulation for the Papa John’s style where the dough would be allowed to rise for only a couple of hours after being made and then be promptly used to make a pizza. Specifically, I targeted the time for fermenting the dough at only two hours, at room temperature. I thought also that it might be helpful to those without mixing equipment to make the dough by hand and to provide detailed instructions for using this method. Of course, as with other PJ clone doughs discussed in this thread, a stand mixer can also be used.
After giving the matter of an emergency PJ clone dough a fair amount of thought, I used the expanded dough calculating tool at http://www.pizzamaking.com/expanded_calculator.html
to come up with the following “emergency” dough formulation:
|King Arthur Bread Flour/VWG Blend (100%):|
Vegetable (Soybean) Oil (7.3%):
|371.81 g | 13.12 oz | 0.82 lbs|
210.07 g | 7.41 oz | 0.46 lbs
2.97 g | 0.1 oz | 0.01 lbs | 0.99 tsp | 0.33 tbsp
5.58 g | 0.2 oz | 0.01 lbs | 1 tsp | 0.33 tbsp
27.14 g | 0.96 oz | 0.06 lbs | 5.98 tsp | 1.99 tbsp
18.59 g | 0.66 oz | 0.04 lbs | 2.66 tsp | 0.89 tbsp
636.17 g | 22.44 oz | 1.4 lbs | TF = N/A
Note: The King Arthur Bread Flour/VWG blend comprises 361.46 g. (12.75 oz.) of King Arthur bread flour and 10.35 g. (0.37 oz.) of Hodgson brand vital wheat gluten (3.45 t.); the formulation is for 22 oz. of dough for a 14” pizza with a nominal thickness factor of 0.14291 and a bowl residue compensation of 2%
As noted in the above table, I used a combination of King Arthur bread flour and vital wheat gluten (VWG). I decided to use the VWG for both its contribution to crust flavor and coloration, as well as increasing the protein content of the King Arthur bread flour. The amount of VWG used, almost 3 ½ teaspoons, was calculated (using member November’s Mixed Mass Percentage Calculator at http://tools.foodsim.com/
) to increase the protein content of the King Arthur bread flour from 12.7% to 14.2%, which is the protein content of a standard high-gluten flour, such as the King Arthur Sir Lancelot and All Trumps high-gluten flours. For those who prefer to use the Bob’s Red Mill brand of VWG, the amount to use is 8.95 g. (0.32 oz.), or about 3.59 t., with the balance (362.86 g., or 12.80 oz.) being the King Arthur bread flour.
As is common with emergency doughs, I also substantially increased the amount of yeast--to about double the normal amount that I would use this time of year for a cold fermented dough. In my case, I used 0.80% IDY.
I also decided to substitute honey for the sugar in the basic PJ clone dough formulation. I decided on the use of honey because it contains simple sugars (like glucose and fructose) that can be metabolized almost immediately by the yeast. By contrast, ordinary table sugar (sucrose) requires conversion to simple sugars before being usable as food by the yeast and to contribute to crust coloration, which can take a fair amount of time, usually considerably longer than the short fermentation period (2 hours in this case) used for the emergency dough. Moreover, since yeast metabolizes honey more slowly than complex sugars, I felt that there would be more residual sugar in the dough at the time of baking to contribute to crust coloration, resulting in a deeper crust color. I also felt that using honey would improve the rheology (flow) characteristics of the dough and make it easier to handle. In using the VWG and the honey, which includes about 17% water, I adjusted the hydration value of the dough formulation to reflect the use of such ingredients. Also, because I was hand kneading the dough, I used a bowl residue compensation of 2% to compensate for minor dough losses during the preparation of the dough. Normally, for a KitchenAid machine made dough, I would use 1.5%.
For those who do not have a scale but have a standard set of measuring cups and measuring spoons, the amount of the King Arthur bread flour used in the KABF/VWG blend, 12.75 ounces, translates to 2 c. + ½ c. + 1/3 c. + 1 T. + 1/14 t. This conversion to volume measurements is based on using the “Textbook” method of flour measurement as defined in Reply 21 at http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php/topic,6576.msg56397.html#msg56397
. The actual conversion data comes from member November's Mass-Volume Conversion Calculator at http://tools.foodsim.com/
. As noted above, the amount of VWG, the Hodgson brand, is about 3 ½ t and a bit more for the Bob’s Red Mill brand. In the absence of VWG, it is possible to use only bread flour. In that case, the 13.12 ounces of flour converts to 3 c., again using the Mass-Volume Conversion Calculator.
The amount of formula water from the above table, 7.41 ounces, converts volumetrically to ½ c. + 1/3 c. + 2 5/8 t. The water in the measuring cup(s) should be viewed at eye level with the measuring cup(s) on a flat surface.
To prepare the dough, I started by using a standard bowl sieve to sift the King Arthur bread flour into a first bowl. The purpose of sifting the flour is to improve its hydration. If one does not have a bowl sieve, a hand crank sifter can be used. I then stirred the VWG and the IDY into the flour. In a second bowl, I added the water (spring water) along with the honey and the salt, and stirred to combine, about 45 seconds. As is common with emergency doughs, I used an elevated water temperature. In my case, I used 125 degrees F (51.7 degrees C). Water at that temperature also helps dissolve the honey. The oil was then added to the water/salt/honey mixture.
I then gradually added the flour mixture to the ingredients in the second bowl, a few tablespoons at a time, and mixed using a whisk to aerate the flour/liquid mixture and improve its hydration. Any suitable whisk can be used but the whisk I used is the one shown at the top of the photo at Reply 65 at http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php/topic,2223.msg63786.html#msg63786
. I used the whisk until it bogged down as the dough mass stiffened. I then switched to a sturdy wooden spoon and continued to add, and to mix in, the flour mixture. When the spoon bogged down, I emptied the contents of the bowl onto a work surface, where I kneaded in the rest of the flour mixture by hand on that work surface. The dough was on the dry side at the beginning of the hand knead, so I added about another teaspoon of water, in increments of a quarter teaspoon. After about 9-10 minutes of hand kneading, and with the help of a bench knife (e.g., such as shown at http://www.kingarthurflour.com/shop/detail.jsp?id=8397
), all of the flour mixture had been worked into the dough, and the dough was smooth and cohesive.
The final dough had a weight of 21.87 ounces and a finished dough temperature of 73 degrees F (22.8 degrees C). Normally, I would try to achieve a finished dough temperature for an emergency dough of around 85-90 degrees F (29.4-32.2 degrees C) but since my kitchen temperature was around 65 degrees F (18.3 degrees C) and I was using hand kneading, which does not add much heat to the dough, the best I could achieve under the circumstances was 73 degrees F. However, as things turned out, that was not a problem or issue at all.
Once the dough was done, I shaped it into a round ball, coated it lightly with vegetable oil (soybean oil), and placed it into a covered transparent plastic container. To monitor the progress of the dough during the rise (fermentation) period, I used the “poppy seed trick” as previously described at http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php/topic,6914.0.html
. I placed two poppy seeds one inch apart on the middle of the top of the dough ball and periodically measured the increase in the spacing between the two poppy seeds. Using that method, I observed that it took only one hour for the dough to roughly double. By the end of the second hour, the dough had more than tripled in volume.
At this point, I decided to use the dough to make the pizza. I gently flattened the dough with my fingers and coated it on both sides with my home-made “Dustinator” clone of semolina flour, white flour, and a bit of vegetable oil (soybean oil) that I had worked into the two flours using my fingers. I then docked the flattened dough on one side using a dough docker such as is done in Papa John’s stores. The particular dough docker I used is shown in Reply 389 at http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php/topic,576.msg26720.html#msg26720
. For those who do not have a dough docker, an ordinary kitchen fork can be used, but care should be taken as not to completely penetrate the dough skin. After docking the dough skin, I shaped and stretched it out to 14”. The dough was fairly nicely balanced between elasticity and extensibility, with a slight bias toward elasticity, but was easy to work with. I was even able to toss the skin pretty much with impunity. Overall, this skin was most like the ones I saw in the Papa John’s stores in terms of the workability of the skin. I believe that this was due to the use of a relatively low hydration and the effects of the honey and oil on the plasticity of the dough.
The skin was then placed on a 14” pizza screen. I formed a rim at the perimeter and dressed it in standard pepperoni fashion. As with other PJ pepperoni clone pizzas I have previously made, I used about 5 ounces of pizza sauce, 9 ounces of diced low-moisture, part-skim mozzarella cheese, and 44 Hormel pepperoni slices that I had first “nuked” in my microwave unit to reduce their fat content. The sauce I used is the PJ clone sauce as described at Reply 8 at http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php/topic,6633.msg57044.html#msg57044
, as modified by the updated instructions as given at Reply 33 at http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php/topic,6633.msg66292.html#msg66292
. The unbaked pizza weighed 38.5 ounces, which was in line with the other PJ pepperoni clone pizzas I have made.
The dressed pizza was baked, on the screen, on the lowest oven rack position of my electric oven, which had been preheated for about 15 minutes (the final 15 minutes of the two-hour dough rise period) at a temperature of about 500 degrees F (260 degrees C). It took about 7-8 minutes to bake the pizza.
The photos below show the finished pizza. As can be seen in the photos, the crust had very good coloration, which was something I was hoping to see. Although not shown, the bottom crust was also of very good--and uniform--coloration. While the finished crust and crumb were softer, less developed, and more bread-like than the other PJ clone pizzas I have made and reported on in this thread, and not as chewy and crispy, perhaps due to the more hygroscopic nature of the honey and its tendency to produce a more tender crust and crumb, the overall pizza was quite good—surprisingly so, in fact. Its overall appearance and weight were also very much in line with an authentic PJ pepperoni pizza. And the flavors, including the characteristic sweetness of the PJ crust, were pretty much on target. I wouldn’t rank the pizza as highly as the other PJ clone pizzas previously described in this thread, but for a two-hour dough, it delivers quite a bit in terms of eating satisfaction.