I will try to answer your questions as best I can in the same order that you presented them.
1. I believe that you are talking about the dough formulation that I presented at Reply 20 at http://www.pizzamaking.com/forum/index.php/topic,6758.msg59217.html#msg59217
. The crust flavors of a two-day pizza won't be quite as good as a five-day pizza, because of less fermentation activity, but the two-day pizza should still be a good pizza.
2. If you use the Thickness Factor option of the expanded dough calculating tool at http://www.pizzamaking.com/expanded_calculator.html
, along with the baker's percents for the dough formulation given at Reply 20 referenced above and the other inputs called for by that tool, including a thickness factor value of 0.13642, you should get the following dough formulation for a 12" pizza:
|Bread Flour (100%):|
Vegetable (Soybean) Oil (7.3%):
|261.11 g | 9.21 oz | 0.58 lbs|
147.53 g | 5.2 oz | 0.33 lbs
0.73 g | 0.03 oz | 0 lbs | 0.24 tsp | 0.08 tbsp
4.57 g | 0.16 oz | 0.01 lbs | 0.82 tsp | 0.27 tbsp
19.06 g | 0.67 oz | 0.04 lbs | 4.2 tsp | 1.4 tbsp
10.97 g | 0.39 oz | 0.02 lbs | 2.75 tsp | 0.92 tbsp
443.97 g | 15.66 oz | 0.98 lbs | TF = 0.1384663
Note: Nominal thickness factor = 0.13642; bowl residue compensation = 1.5%
The dough for the 12" pizza size will be about 6 ounces less than for a 14" size. So, there should be some differences in knead times, but I don't think that the differences should be great. It will also depend on your particular type and brand of mixer. The 12" baked pizza should be very similar to a 14" baked pizza. However, the bake time for the 12" may need some adjustment. There are so many different types of ovens and models that it is not possible for me to quantify the difference in bake time. Also, my experience has been only with respect to an electric oven, not a gas oven.
3. Usually where a climate is very hot, you may have to make various adjustments in the dough formulation. I can't tailor the above dough formulation to your particular operating environment with any degree of confidence, but usually in a high temperature environment you will want to use very cold water and possibly less yeast. The objective is to end up with a dough that has a finished dough temperature of around 75-80 degrees F, or possibly even less. Your refrigerator should also be able to maintain a temperature in the range of 35-42 degrees F. I don't work in an environment with the high humidity where you live, but you may need to use less water when making the dough.
4. As noted above, I do not have experience using a gas oven.