00 FLOUR: In Italy, flour is classified either as 1, 0, or 00, and refers
to how finely ground the flour is and how much of the bran and germ have been removed. 00 flour is
the most highly refined and is talcum-powder soft. Italian 00 flour is made from Italian grains and/or
blends of Italian and imported grains (including Manitoba flour from Canada) to achieve a range of
protein of about 10–12.5%. Common brands of 00 flour available at the retail level in the U.S.
include Caputo, Bel Aria and Delverde. The Vermont-based King Arthur Flour Company produces a
"clone" of the 00 flour (called Italian-Style flour) with a protein level of 8.5% which is
quite a bit lower than the imported Italian 00 flours, therefore it is not an authentic 00 flour and
will have different behavioral characteristics.
6 IN 1 TOMATOES: A brand of canned tomatoes produced by
Escalon Premier Brands located in the rural
community of Escalon in the heart of California's San Joaquin Valley. Escalon tomatoes are always
vine-ripened to a vibrant red, picked and packed within hours of harvest. Citric acid (a sour
tasting preservative) is never added to any Escalon branded product. As a result, the final products
are bright in color, and true to the sweet taste of fresh tomatoes. Spooned directly from the can
then lightly seasoned, these tomatoes are the secret to making a genuine Chicago-style deep dish pizza.
See also ESCALON PREMIER BRANDS.
ABSORPTION: A measurement established by flour producers to describe the
capacity of a flour to absorb water and achieve a desired dough consistency. The value is expressed
in terms of percent of water absorbed by a flour sample during the measurement test. The measurement
is a laboratory measurement and, hence, is not identical to the hydration ratio actually achieved in
field applications, although it is usually quite close.
ACTIVE DRY YEAST (ADY): A dried form of yeast that, before combining with
other dough ingredients, is activated by re-hydration, or "proofing," in warm water (or other
liquid) at around 105–115°F Some brands of active dry yeast can also be combined with a portion
of the flour and other dry ingredients, in which case the temperature of the liquid used (usually water)
can be as high as 120–130°F Advantages of active dry yeast include convenience of use and long
storage life, especially when sealed and frozen in an airtight container.
ADY: See ACTIVE DRY YEAST.
ALL-PURPOSE FLOUR: Flour with a protein level of 10-12%. Ideal for general
baking purposes. Higher protein flours make firmer, stronger doughs while lower protein flours produce
softer, weaker doughs. Cake flour is typically 7-9% protein; pastry, or cookie, ≈9-10%; all-purpose,
10-12%; bread, 12.5-13.5%; clear and high-gluten, 14-15%; and gluten "flour" (actually refined
ALPHA-AMYLASE: The alpha-amylase enzyme develops when grain sprouts. It
has a direct impact on bread quality and adversely affects the malting process. As little as 5%
sprouted grain, mixed with 95% good grain, can render the entire mixture unacceptable. A certain
amount of alpha-amylase is necessary for proper baking to occur. The alpha-amylase breaks down
starches to provide sugars to help fuel the fermentation process. The amount of enzyme present can
have a direct bearing upon the quality of bread produced. When the alpha-amylase activity is right,
a high volume bread with firm and soft texture is achieved. If the activity is too high, a sticky
bread crumb and low volume may result. If the activity is too low, a dry bread crumb with large
holes may result. Measured using the "falling number" method. See also FALLING NUMBER.
AP: An abbreviation for all-purpose flour.
ASCORBIC ACID: An organic acid more commonly known as Vitamin C and
commonly used as an additive for flour and also for instant dry yeast (IDY), and sometimes with
active dry yeast (ADY). When added to flour, it acts as an oxidizing agent (by virtue of acting with
atmospheric oxygen), which makes it easier to form the gluten network (by preventing the gluten
bonds from breaking down) during kneading of the dough. When used with yeast, it acts as a nutrient
and provides an acidic environment for the yeast so that it acts faster and longer.
ASH: A term used in relation to flour to indicate its mineral content. The
higher the ash count, the more minerals are present in the flour, and vice versa. To calculate the
ash count, a sample of the flour is incinerated and the remains (the "ash") are then weighed in
relation to the original sample weight to calculate the ash count for that flour. The ash count can
serve as an indication of the degree of refinement of the flour since a flour from which most of the
bran has been removed will have a lower ash count than one from which less bran has been removed. A
flour with a high ash count will also be slightly darker than one with a low ash count because of
the higher amount of bran. Today, ash count has even less of a relationship to milling quality than
it did a few decades ago because new wheat varieties and richer soils have made higher ash levels
the norm, with typical ash values commonly being around 0.50% for domestic wheat varieties.
AUTOLYSE: A rest period, typically lasting 15–45 minutes, during which
flour and especially the protein in the flour fully absorb the water before the yeast and salt are
added and fermentation activity begins. Full absorption allows the gluten structure to form better,
more complex bonds and serves to reduce oxidation of the dough and shorten the overall mix time.
Autolyse also helps increase the extensibility of the dough due to the action of protease enzymes in
the flour to break down the gluten slightly during the autolyse. Over time, the term "autolyse" has
come to be used to refer to almost any rest period during the mix/knead cycle even though such use
is not technically an autolyse as conceived by its originator, Prof. Raymond Calvel, a professor
emeritus of baking sciences at L'ecole Francais de Meunerie and author of the classic work on
European breadmaking, LeGout de Pain. The term autolyse is pronounced ah-toh-leez.
BAKER'S PERCENTS (OR PERCENTAGES): A mathematical tool and "language" used
by bakers to analyze recipes and to scale or re-size recipes up or down in quantity. It is a
weight-based system in which the percentage of each ingredient is stated in relation to the weight
of the flour, which always has a baker's percent of 100%. In the context of pizza dough production,
baker's percents can be used to determine the quantities of ingredients required to make any dough
batch size or number of pizzas of any given size and crust thickness.
BIANCA: See PIZZA BIANCA.
BIGA: An Italian term that generally means preferment. A biga is made from
a mixture of flour, water, a small amount of commercial yeast, but no salt, and typically uses a
hydration sufficient to achieve a generally quite stiff, dough-like consistency, much like the final
dough into which it is to be incorporated. It is allowed to ferment and ripen at room temperature
for several hours (typically 12–24 hours or more) before incorporating into the final dough.
Although bigas most often use commercial yeast, a biga can also be made using naturally occurring
(wild) yeast. Such a biga is sometimes referred to as a "Biga Natural." The term "biga" is
BREAD FLOUR: Flour with a protein level of 12.5-13.5%. Ideal for breads
and "hand tossed" thin crust pizza. Higher protein flours make firmer, stronger doughs while lower
protein flours produce softer, weaker doughs. Cake flour is typically 7-9% protein; pastry, or
cookie, ≈9-10%; all-purpose, 10-12%; bread, 12.5-13.5%; clear and high-gluten, 14-15%; and gluten
"flour" (actually refined gluten), 45%.
BROMATED FLOUR: See POTASSIUM BROMATE.
BUFFALO MOZZARELLA (MOZZARELLA DI BUFALA): A cheese made from the milk of
water buffaloes (river water buffaloes). The cheese is generally considered to be of high quality
because the water buffalo milk from which the cheese is made is thicker than regular milk, whiter
(porcelain-white), with more butterfat, and more non-fat solids. (It also has 38% more calcium and
43% less cholesterol than cow's milk.) The cheese is a firm, stringy-textured cheese with a thin
rind and delicate taste. Its principal drawback for the average home pizza maker is that the cheese
has to be imported from Italy, mainly the Campania region of southern Italy (which is home to over
eighty percent of Italy's water buffaloes), and, accordingly, is expensive compared with domestic
cow's milk mozzarella cheeses. It also starts to deteriorate in quality fairly quickly. While most
buffalo mozzarella cheese is imported from Italy, there are at least two domestic producers of the
cheese as of this writing.
CAKE FLOUR: A relatively low-protein flour (typically 7–8.5%) milled from
soft red winter wheat and used primarily for baking cakes and similar soft baked goods. It is often
combined with other flours, including all-purpose, pastry and bread flour, to simulate imported
Italian 00 flours for use in making Neapolitan-style pizzas. It has a typical absorption rate of
about 53%, ± 2%. It is one of the few flours to be bleached by King Arthur, which is done to
achieve greater volume.
CALIFORNIA STYLE PIZZA: One of the identifying characteristics of
California style pizza is the toppings. California style tends to use exotic toppings and
"off-the-beaten-path" combinations. While it is difficult to determine the origins of this style,
some think it started in the 1970's or early 1980's. Back in the 1970's, creative culinary experts
like Wolfgang Puck started experimenting with different, non-traditional toppings and later, around
the mid-1980's, concepts like California Pizza Kitchen began selling the West Coast style. The dough
has the same protein content as Chicago style, but the dough is mixed until it is smooth. The dough
is placed in the pan and allowed to rise. In many cases these crusts are par-baked (sometimes called
double baked) to order. This is done to help retain the height after baking and it also contributes
to the crispy eating characteristic. The crust is light, airy and tender, which comes from the flour
and proofing. Toppings tend to range from shrimp and asparagus to smoked salmon and other seafoods.
Vegetarian combinations are also predominant. Source:
CALVEL (Prof. Raymond): A recognized expert on the production of quality
French and other European hearth breads and the originator (in the 1970's) of the autolyse method
and other aspects of dough and bread making. Was a professor of baking sciences at the L'ecole
Francais de Meunerie and the author of the classic work on bread production, Le Gout du Pain
(translated into English as The Taste of Bread.) Is considered by many to be the "father" of bread
CAPUTO: An Italian producer of Caputo 00 flours sold in the U.S. and in
several other countries for use in making pizza doughs and doughs for other baked goods. The Caputo
brands in the U.S. include Caputo 00 pizzeria flour (the flour most commonly used by pizzamaking.com
members), Caputo Rosso, and Caputo Extra Blue. The Caputo Rosso flour has the highest level of
protein of the three flours and the Caputo Extra Blue has the lowest. See also the Caputo website:
CHEF: See PATE FERMENTE.
CHICAGO STYLE PIZZA: One of the identifying features of Chicago style
pizza is its deep dish. In 1943, Ike Sewell created a deep-dish pizza. Ike's belief was if you made
a pizza with massive amounts of ingredients (especially sausage) it would become a hearty meal
choice for people. He was right, so he opened Pizzeria Uno which specialized in deep-dish pizza and
started the Chicago style phenomenon. Chicago style pizza is usually eaten with a knife and fork
rather than the hands because it is so thick and heavy. The dough, which contrary to many beliefs,
is not really thick, but has a biscuit-like texture and has raised high on the sides of seasoned
deep dish pans to hold all of the ingredients in. The cheese is placed directly on the dough and
toppings added on top of that. The top is cheesed and sauced with a chunky sauce with a light
sprinkling of cheese scattered on top of the sauce. Cooking times are usually longer due to the
overall thickness of the pizza. The dough used for this style usually contains 10.5–11.5%
protein and is under-mixed (not smooth.) Table grade margarine is used in the pans to add a
slight, fried crispness, which contributes to the rich flavor and aids as a release agent in helping
to get the baked pizzas out of the pan. Source:
CLEAR FLOUR: See HIGH-GLUTEN FLOUR.
COLD FERMENTATION: The fermentation of a dough under refrigeration,
usually for an extended period of time, for the purpose of developing better flavors and aromas in
the finished crust through increased production of fermentation byproducts.
COMPRESSED YEAST: A fresh form of yeast also commonly referred to as
"fresh" or "cake" yeast. It is a "wet" form of yeast inasmuch as it
has a moisture content of around 70%, which makes it faster acting than dry yeasts and, hence,
attractive to bakers and pizza operators who must use yeast regularly and in high volume in their
businesses. This form of yeast is also available to consumers in small packages (usually 0.6 ounces,
or 17 g.) sold in the refrigerated sections of many supermarkets. In use, the compressed yeast is
either hydrated ("proofed") in tepid water (80–90°F) before using or crumbled and
mixed into the flour and other dry ingredients. The principal drawback of this form of yeast is that
it is highly perishable and has a short shelf life (refrigerated), usually around two weeks or less.
For consumers (but not for bakers) it is also considerably more expensive than dry yeasts on an
CORNICIONE: Italian term for the "lip" or the outer puffy edge of
CRACKER STYLE PIZZA: Pizza Hut made the cracker style crust popular back
in the 1950's and they are still identified with this style. The dough is under-mixed according to
Tom Lehmann with the American Institute of Baking. It is mixed until you can still see some of the
white flour (only about five minutes). This dough needs to be fermented for five or six hours and
must be sheeted to obtain its layered, cracker-like texture. The toppings and cheese are modestly
applied and not piled up high and a thinner sauce usually works best. Source:
CRUMB: A term used by bakers to define the inside of a bread or pizza
crust, that is, its internal cell structure. Many factors can influence the cell structure of the
crumb. For example, a high hydration dough that has not been overkneaded, has been properly shaped,
and has sufficient yeast available at the time of baking to produce a good, final oven spring will
generally result in a crumb that is open and airy with a lot of large, irregularly-sized and shaped
holes (called alveoles). Conversely, a dough with low hydration, rolled rather than hand shaped, and
with low yeast levels at the time of baking (resulting in a poorer oven spring) will generally
result in a crumb that is more breadlike, with small, even-sized and tightly formed cells.
Experienced bakers can usually tell from the color and other facets of the crumb what kind of
flour and yeast levels were used, including the use of preferments.
CUTTER PAN: A circular solid or perforated metal pan with sloping sides
and a sharp exposed outer edge for permitting a rolled out or sheeted dough that has been draped
over the sharp edge of the pan to be cut to fit the pan by rolling a rolling pin over the dough
DAIRY WHEY: A baking ingredient derived as a byproduct of cheese
production and processed into a dry form for use in doughs to promote greater crust browning. Dried
dairy whey includes around 70% lactose, a milk sugar. It's the only simple sugar that is not
metabolized (consumed) by yeast. But it contributes to browning of the crust. The lactose also has a
low sweetness factor, so it won't be detected in the crust. So the result will be better color in
the finished crust but not the accompanying sweetness. The usual rate of use of dairy whey is around
4% by weight of flour.
DAMAGED STARCH: Starch in flour that is damaged during milling (and
sometimes inherent in the wheat grain.) Damaged starch in a flour is important because enzymes in
the flour, namely alpha- and beta-amylase, work on the damaged starch to produce compounds that are
converted to simple sugars for feeding the yeast during fermentation and also to contribute to the
residual sugars in the dough at the time of baking to promote better crust browning.
DIASTATIC MALT: A barley malt commonly used in flours to increase the
extraction of sugars from the flours for use as food for the yeast during fermentation and to
increase the residual sugars in the dough at the time of baking to promote increased crust browning.
The diastatic malt is produced from barley that has been sprouted, dried and ground into flour. The
diastatic malt works through enzymatic activity (it provides additional alpha-amylase) to release
sugar from the damaged starch molecules of flour. Diastatic malt is available in both dry and liquid
form. The recommended rate is about 1/2 to 1 teaspoon for every 3 cups of flour. Any more than that
can result in a slack, sticky dough and a gummy crumb in the baked crust.
D.O.P./DOP: An abbreviation for Denominazione d'Origine Protetta, or
"denomination of protected origin." This mark is guaranteed by the European Community (EU) and was
created to promote the authenticity and artisan characteristics of certain food and agricultural
products. These products are split into the categories of cheese, fruit and vegetables, salumi (or
meats), and olive oils. A DOP certification guarantees that a product and all phases of production
for that product have been carried out in a strictly defined geographic area which, in some cases,
can be just a small cluster of villages. Among the pizza related ingredients that are often covered
under the D.O.P. mark are San Marzano tomatoes, buffalo mozzarella cheeses, olive oils, prosciutto
di Parma, grana padano, pecorino Romano, and Parmiggiano Reggiano cheeses.
DOCKING: The act of poking numerous holes into a pizza skin
immediately prior to topping which helps prevent large air bubbles from forming in the crust
during baking. Usually performed using a specialized tool called a dough docker. Can also
be performed using a fork, but this technique can be slow and time consuming.
DOUBLE-ZERO FLOUR: See 00 FLOUR.
DOUGH CONDITIONER: A general term used for additives that function to help
improve the quality of the finished product by altering the way dough behaves. There are four main
categories of dough conditioners: 1) enzymes, 2) oxidizing agents, 3) reducing agents, and 4)
emulsifiers. Enzymes are biological catalysts that accelerate chemical reactions, such as increasing
the extraction of sugar from starch. Oxidizing agents improve the dough strength by forming bonds
between the protein chains. Reducing agents weaken the protein by breaking bonds between proteins
during mixing, thereby reducing the mixing times and dough elasticity Emulsifiers strengthen the
dough or soften the crumb. Examples of additives falling into the above four categories include
diastatic malt, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), L-cysteine (or PZ-44), and lecithin, respectively.
DOUGH RELAXER: A baking ingredient used to relax dough that is excessively
elastic and prone to shrinking and snapping back. The problem is most commonly experienced with
doughs made from high-gluten flours. Common examples of ingredients used to relax such doughs so
that they can be shaped and stretched to the desired size (diameter) include glutathione (dead yeast
cells), L-cysteine, and PZ-44 (a combination of L-cysteine and whey proteins). Since these
ingredients are available primarily for use by professional pizza operators, home pizza makers
usually rely on high hydration levels and longer periods of fermentation to allow the enzymes in the
flour (namely the protease enzymes) to soften the gluten so that the dough becomes sufficiently
extensible to shape and stretch out to the desired size. (Note: a dough relaxer product produced by
Lora Brody for use by home bakers has been discontinued.)
DRY MILK: A powdered milk product commonly added to dough primarily for
crust color development (browning). It includes lactose (about 50%), a simple sugar that is
primarily responsible for the browning but is not consumed by the yeast. Consequently, the sugar is
available during the time of baking as a residual sugar to promote browning. Because lactose has a
low sweetness value, it will not be detected as sweetness in the crust. What is important is that
the powdered milk be of a high-heat baker's grade form, not the type sold in supermarkets. The
baker's grade form of dry milk has been heated at high temperature and otherwise processed to
disable certain offending constituents of milk (either a whey protein or an enzyme) so that the
dough doesn't become overly slack and soft. A typical rate of use of the baker's grade dry milk is
around 3–5% by weight of flour. At higher levels of use, the dry milk can provide a measure of
softness in the finished crust.
ELASTICITY: The capability of dough to return to its original shape after
stretching. This effect is often referred to as "dough memory". Generally speaking, doughs made with
high-protein, high-gluten flours tend most to exhibit this tendency because of their higher gluten
content and their more extensive and stronger gluten network. Doughs will also exhibit high
elasticity if they are reworked or re-kneaded just before shaping and stretching, which disorients
and misaligns the gluten strands from their relaxed state just prior to reshaping.
ESCALON PREMIER BRANDS: Producer of super-premium "fresh pack" tomato
products, considered to be one of the best
in the industry. One of the few producers that
does not use citric acid, a bitter-tasting
preservative, in any of its products. Some popular Escalon brands
include 6 IN 1 and Bontá. Used exclusively by
reputable pizzerias around the country.
Escalon's product line is similar to that of
rival Stanislaus Food Products (see
Escalon/Stanislaus Cross Reference table.) See also rival
STANISLAUS FOOD PRODUCTS.
EVOO: Abbreviation for extra virgin olive oil.
EXTENSIBILITY: The capability of dough to be shaped and stretched without
breaking or springing back to its original shape. Generally speaking, doughs made with low-protein
low-gluten flours, high hydration levels, and long fermentation times will tend to be more
extensible than doughs made with high-protein high-gluten flours, low hydration levels, and short
A super-premium brand of pepperoni produced by Ezzo Italian Meats
based in Columbus, Ohio. Ezzo
pepperoni is made by hand in small batches, is
very lean (21% fat compared to 28% like most),
and has an excellent spice profile.
FALLING NUMBER: A term used by millers and bakers to refer to the
alpha-amylase activity in flour. The falling number (FN) value has an inverse relationship with the
alpha-amylase activity meaning the higher the alpha-amylase activity the lower the FN value, and
vice-versa. For many flours, the falling number is adjusted through the addition of diastatic malt,
or fungal amylase, to increase the level of enzymatic activity for optimum dough performance. Such
adjustments are usually done at the mill, but sometimes by the baker. Malted bread flours typically
have falling numbers of 250–290. Generally, a falling number value of 350 or greater indicates
low enzyme activity. Values below 200 indicate high levels of enzyme activity. For comparison purposes,
the King Arthur Sir Lancelot flour, which is a malted flour, has a falling number of 250 ± 30 seconds.
By contrast, the Caputo 00 pizzeria flour, which is unmalted, has a falling number of 340–360
seconds. Quite often, the falling number alone will indicate whether a particular flour is malted or not.
See also ALPHA-AMYLASE.
FERMENTATION: The process by which yeast metabolizes (consumes) simple
sugars to produce carbon dioxide and alcohol (ethyl alcohol). The sugars come basically from three
sources: a small amount of simple sugars naturally present in the flour, sugars that are converted
from complex sugars to simple sugars through a series of conversion operations, and sugar that is
released by enzymatic action on damaged starch in the flour (starch that is primarily damaged during
milling). The carbon dioxide resulting from fermentation is trapped within the gluten structure,
causing the dough to rise. The alcohol is converted to compounds that provide flavor and aroma to
the finished crust.
FIBRAMENT: A brand of baking (pizza) stone sold by AWMCO.
FIOR DI LATTE: "Flower of the Milk," a fresh, soft, whole-milk
mozzarella cheese made from the milk of a cow.
FOCACCIA STYLE PIZZA: Focaccia style pizzas can be identified by the
absence of sauce. These pizzas start with a round, flat bread (focaccia) that ranges from 3/8 to as
much as 1-inch in thickness and starts with a medium crust dough. They are topped with oils, grilled
vegetables and other toppings and can be found in many gourmet pizzerias. This style of pizza is
among the oldest styles of pizzas as they were the first types made before the introduction of
tomatoes by European explorers returning from Mexico and Central America. Source:
FRESH PACK TOMATOES: Fresh pack tomatoes are only packaged during the
tomato season. They are vine-ripened and usually processed and packaged within a few hours from
being picked in the field. This is in contrast to remanufactured tomatoes where they are picked,
processed into a concentrate and packaged at a later date after being reconstituted with water.
FRICTION FACTOR (FF): A value, expressed as temperature, that
represents the amount of frictional heat imparted to a dough by the particular machine (e.g., stand
mixer, food processor, or bread machine) used to mix and knead the dough. This value is used along
with other temperature measurements, namely, room temperature and flour temperature, to calculate
the temperature of water required to achieve a desired finished dough temperature (usually around
80–85°F, which is considered optimal for fermentation purposes.) Water temperature is
selected for adjustment since it is the easiest of all the temperatures to control. The value of FF
will vary depending on the type of machine used, the machine speeds used, bowl and dough batch size,
and duration of knead.
GLUTEN: An elastic, rubbery substance that results when certain proteins
in flour, namely glutenin and gliadin, are combined with a liquid (usually water) and mixed
together. Prior to this combination the gluten does not exist. When the gluten in dough is properly
kneaded, a strong and highly developed gluten network forms that has a honeycomb-like structure
which traps gases (i.e., carbon dioxide) produced during fermentation. As the gases are produced in quantity,
the gluten structure expands, causing the dough to rise.
A super-premium mozzarella cheese produced by the Grande Cheese Company
based in Lomira, Wisconsin. Their signature mozzarella cheese is
rich and creamy, soft and tender, with excellent taste and cooking (melting) characteristics.
Used by many reputable New York pizzerias, this high-butterfat cheese is
credited for leaving
those yellow trails of oil running down your arm when you eat a slice of genuine NY-style pizza.
HIGH-GLUTEN FLOUR: Flour with a protein level of 14-15%. Exceptional for
"hand tossed" New York-style pizza and bagels. Higher protein flours make firmer, stronger doughs
while lower protein flours produce softer, weaker doughs. Cake flour is typically 7-9% protein;
pastry, or cookie, ≈9-10%; all-purpose, 10-12%; bread, 12.5-13.5%; clear and high-gluten, 14-15%;
and gluten "flour" (actually refined gluten), 45%.
HOLE STRUCTURE: See
HYDRATION: A term that refers to the capacity of flour to absorb water.
Hydration is usually stated as a baker's percent, or ratio, that is equal to the weight of water
divided by the weight of flour used in a recipe. Different flours have different capacities to
absorb water, with high-protein flours having higher hydration capacities than lower protein flours.
HYDROSCOPIC: See HYGROSCOPIC.
HYGROSCOPIC: The capacity of a substance to absorb moisture from its
surroundings. Flour, salt and sugar (and honey) are good examples of hygroscopic ingredients
familiar to pizza makers. The term hygroscopic is sometimes spelled hydroscopic.
IDY: See INSTANT DRY YEAST.
INSTANT DRY YEAST (IDY): A very finely-divided strain of dry yeast that,
because of its particular strain and its smaller particle size than active dry yeast (ADY), needs no
re-hydration, or "proofing", in water or other liquid to activate it and can thus be added directly
to the flour and other dry ingredients. Moreover, instant dry yeast contains more live cells than
active dry yeast, further facilitating its activation. Once in the flour, the instant dry yeast can
tolerate liquid temperatures of 120–130°F Because of all these factors, the instant dry
yeast will start to work faster than active dry yeast. Like active dry yeast, advantages of instant
dry yeast include convenience of use and long storage life, especially when sealed and frozen in an
JOHNS (Pamela Sheldon): A cookbook author known in pizza circles for her
book, Pizza Napoletana!, devoted to Neapolitan-style pizzas. For a review of this book, see
the book review section of the pizzamaking.com site.
KASL: See SIR
ARTHUR FLOUR COMPANY: A well-known source of
baking ingredients and highly regarded for its high-quality, unbleached, unbromated flours with
tight milling specifications and generally higher protein levels than competing brands. While King
Arthur has a retail store in White River Junction, VT, it does a substantial mail-order business
KOSHER SALT: A form of salt produced through the use of evaporation
processes but having a larger particle size (and different shape) than ordinary table salt. Kosher
salts usually contain no additives. Kosher salt can be substituted for table salt in recipes, but
because of its larger particle size, it is often recommended that the amount of the Kosher salt
substituted be about 1 1/2 to 2 times the amount of table salt, by volume. As a matter of
convenience, producers of some brands of Kosher salt suggest using the same amount of Kosher salt as
table salt, by volume.
L-CYSTEINE: L-cysteine is used in flour as a treatment agent to aid in the
relaxing of gluten in doughs, such as pizza bases, that are heavily manipulated. In controlled
amounts, it will break the sulfhydryl bridges between gluten proteins, producing weakened flour. See
also DOUGH CONDITIONER.
LEHMANN (Tom): Director of Baking Assistance at the American Institute of
Baking (AIB), Manhattan, KS, and a technical advisor and consultant to the pizza industry. He is an
acknowledged expert on pizza dough and its commercial production and management and is a frequent
contributor on such matters at the Pizza Marketing Quarterly (PMQ) and Pizza Today, including their
online forums. He is frequently referred to as the "Dough Doctor."
LEVAIN: A French term for a natural preferment that is essentially
synonymous (in the U.S.) with sourdough. It is a culture of a naturally-occurring (wild) yeast and
bacteria that can leaven and flavor a bread or pizza crust. It is refreshed periodically by
replacement of a part of the culture by new flour and water, and a portion of the refreshed culture
is allowed to ferment and mature (ripen) before incorporating into the final dough. The remainder of
the culture is used to begin the next batch of dough. A levain, or "sourdough," can be perpetuated
for many years, even centuries for certain highly-stable strains.
MAKE-UP BOARD: See PEEL.
MARGHERITA: See PIZZA MARGHERITA.
MARINARA: See PIZZA MARINARA.
MOZZARELLA CHEESE: A soft, pasta filata (stretched curd) cheese
made in a way resembling provolone. In the United States, milk (whole, lowfat, nonfat) is usually
pasteurized, and set by warming to 95°F and adding lactic acid-producing bacterial starters and a
coagulating enzyme. The curd is separated from the whey, and when a critical acidity has been
reached, the mozzarella curd is immersed in hot water (170° to 180°F), or heated with steam, and
kneaded and stretched until smooth. Thereafter, the cheese is molded into proper forms, immersed in
cold water to harden, and sometimes salted in brine. The cheese has little or no curing and may be
used immediately after processing. Available forms of mozzarella cheese include part-skim
mozzarella, low-moisture mozzarella, and low-moisture, part-skim mozzarella. String cheese derived
from mozzarella is also popular. Source: National Dairy Council.
MOZZARELLA DI BUFALA: See BUFFALO MOZZARELLA.
NEAPOLITAN STYLE PIZZA:
'a pizza Napoletana. According to the
Associazione vera pizza napoletana, genuine Neapolitan pizza dough consists of wheat flour (type
0 and/or 00), natural yeast or brewer's yeast, and water. For proper results, strong flour with high
protein content (as used for bread-making rather than cakes) must be used. The dough must be kneaded
by hand or with an approved mixer. After the rising process, the dough must be formed by hand
without the help of a rolling pin or any other mechanical device, and may be no more than 0.3 cm
thick. Baking the pizza must take place in a wood-fired, stone oven at 485°C (905°F) for 60–90
seconds. When cooked, it should be soft and fragrant. The classic types and their respective
Marinara or Napoletana: tomato, olive oil, oregano, and garlic.
Margherita: tomato, olive oil, fresh basil leaves, and fior-di-latte or mozzarella di bufala.
Formaggio e Pomodoro: tomato, olive oil, and grated parmesan cheese. Basil leaves are optional.
NEAPOLITAN-AMERICAN STYLE PIZZA: See NEW YORK STYLE PIZZA.
NEW YORK STYLE PIZZA: New York style pizza can be traced back to the 17th
century when Spanish soldiers were occupying the area around Naples, Italy. One of their favorite
snacks was a soft, crispy dough with toppings that the Neapolitans called sfiziosa. Like local New
Yorkers who fold their slices in half and eat while walking, these Spanish soldiers folded the flat
bread into a libretto (little book) and ate it with their hands. One of the main characteristics of
New York style pizza is its thin, chewy crust, but that isn't everything that defines New York style
pizza. Many might say that it's not New York style unless it leaves those yellow trails of oil
running down your elbow when you eat it. This comes from the high butter fat cheese they use. Big
Dave Ostrander says most New York pizzerias use Grande mozzarella cheese to get this trait. For New
York style, fresh mozzarella isn't an option... it's a rule! Many are hearth or deck oven baked and
the sauce is usually thinner than most sauces with fewer ingredients added. The dough is made with
high protein, high gluten flour (usually 13.5 to 14.5% protein) and is slightly chewy. There
is an old urban legend that you can only produce New York pizza in New York due to the hard water
they have. While it's true that New York has hard water, it's debatable as to whether this is the
secret ingredient. Source:
NON-DIASTATIC MALT: A diastatic malt without the enzyme activity
capability and commonly used for flavoring, color, and crust browning purposes. Available in liquid
or dry form, it is sweet and flavorful and can be used in lieu of other sweeteners, and caramelizes
well and contributes to browning. However, it isn't the same as and doesn't operate like diastatic
malt and consequently shouldn't be confused with diastatic malt.
OLD DOUGH: See PATE FERMENTE.
OSTRANDER (Dave): A former independent pizza operator and now a consultant
to the pizza industry. He is also a frequent contributor to the Pizza Marketing Quarterly (PMQ),
including its online forum. He is well known for his "Old Faithful" pizza dough recipes which have
been used by pizza operators all around the world to make over 2 million pounds of dough. He is an
acknowledged expert on the management of pizza operations, from startup to mature business.
Ostrander is often referred to as the "Pizza Doctor" or, more commonly, "Big Dave."
OVEN SPRING: The rapid increase and final burst in the expansion of dough
once it is loaded into the oven. The dough expansion will cease as soon as the temperature of the
dough reaches about 140° F, at which point the yeast dies. There are many factors that
influence the degree and quality of the oven spring when baking pizzas, including overall dough
quality (it should not be stiff or overkneaded, and it should have good hydration), the amount of
yeast in the dough as of the time of baking, the degree of fermentation (it should not be
underfermented or overfermented), and oven temperature. The manner in which the pizza is baked, that
is, whether using a pan, stone/tiles, or pizza screen, will also be a factor.
OXIDATION: As applied to pizza dough, the term means a chemical reaction
that takes place when air is incorporated into the dough, as by mixing and kneading. The effect is
to reinforce the gluten bonds and strengthen the dough and increase the hydration capacity of the
dough. However, excessive oxidation, which can occur if the dough is kneaded too long, can have the
adverse effect of destroying caretenoid pigments naturally present in the flour and result in a loss
of color and taste in the finished crust. This is one of the reasons why an autolyse period is often
used since the autolyse will have the effect of shortening the overall kneading time.
PAN STYLE PIZZA: This style gets its name because it's cooked in a pan,
but there is more to it than that. The pan has oil in it that fries the bottom layer of dough giving
it a light crunch, and a slightly different flavor than a conventionally, baked pizza. The dough is
somewhat thick as a result of the dough being allowed to proof/rise in the pan prior to baking.
Toppings and cheese usually don't identify a pan style and can be used in any amounts. Areas in the
southeastern U.S. are usually identified with this style of pizza. Source:
PAR-BAKE: The partial baking of a dough, without anything on it, to
prepare a partially-baked crust, or "shell", to be used to prepare a finished pizza at a later date.
Until then, the par-baked crust is refrigerated or frozen (or kept at room temperature for near-term
use). When a finished pizza is to be made, the partially-baked crust is dressed with sauce, cheeses
and other toppings and baked until done.
PARCHMENT PAPER: A paper that has been treated with sulfuric acid and
coated with silicone. The sulfuric acid makes the surface of the paper smooth so that it resists
grease and moisture and tolerates high oven temperatures. The silicone coating prevents foods from
sticking. Instead of using a peel, some home pizza makers use parchment paper on which to build
their pizzas before loading into the oven. Parchment paper is not wax paper, which is paper coated
with a paraffin wax.
PARMESAN CHEESE: Parmesan (Parmigiano Reggiano) is the most widely known
variety of grana (which means hard grating) cheese, the most important cooking cheese in northern
Italy. This salty, sharp-flavored, grating cheese is also manufactured in the United States. A
mixture of whole and nonfat milk, usually pasteurized, is warmed to 95°F and a bacterial starter is
added. After ripening for 5 to 10 minutes, a coagulating enzyme is added. The resulting curd
particles are cut into pieces no larger than wheat kernels and cooked, with stirring, for about 45
minutes at a relatively high temperature of 115° to 125°F. The curd is allowed to settle and drain,
and is placed in circular cloth-lined hoops and pressed. The pressed curd is removed, salted in
brine for 14 to 15 days, and then dried 8 to 10 days. During cooling, which takes from 10 to 24
months in a cool (50°F), ventilated room, the cheese is frequently turned. The rind may be treated
with a mixture of dark earth dye and olive or other vegetable oil. Source: National Dairy Council.
PASTRY FLOUR: A relatively low-protein flour typically milled from soft
white/red winter wheat and primarily used for pastries. However, it can be combined with other
flours, including all-purpose, cake flour and bread flour, to simulate an imported Italian 00 flour
for use in making Neapolitan-style pizzas. The flour has a typical protein content of 8.5–9.5%.
PATE FERMENTE: A French term used to mean a slightly-aged prefermented
dough. In one version, the pate fermente is made by combining a starter, such as a sourdough
starter, and flour and water, and the combination is left to rise and then refrigerated overnight
or, in some cases, for several days before incorporating it into the final dough. In another form,
often referred to as a chef or "old dough", a portion of one day's dough production is taken and
used in the next day's production. Consequently, the removed dough has the same ingredients as the
dough batch from which it was taken, including flour, water, commercial yeast and salt. In both
forms, the hydration of the pate fermente is established to be reasonably close to the hydration of
the finished dough into which the pate fermente is to be incorporated.
PEEL: A long-handled spade-shaped tool that is used chiefly by bakers for
getting something (as bread or pizza) into or out of the oven. Peels generally
come in wood and metal versions. The wood version, sometimes called a make-up board, is considered
best for assembling and "peeling" a pizza into the oven, and
the metal version, which has a very thin blade, is considered best for removing pizzas from the oven
(although the two can be used interchangeably.)
PEPPERONI: In the U.S., pepperoni refers to a spicy Italian-American variety
of dry salami made of pork and beef. Pepperoni is a descendant of the spicy salamis of Italy, such as
salsiccia Napoletana piccante, a spicy dry pork sausage from Naples. Pepperoni is frequently
used as a pizza topping in American-style pizzerias. It is the most popular pizza topping in North
America, present on at least 30% of all pizzas. For pepperoni that "cups" and chars when
cooked, choose a brand with a collagen casing.
PIZZAIOLO: A term most commonly associated with a trained Italian pizza maker,
especially one with skills in making and baking Neapolitan pizzas, particularly in a high-temperature
wood-fired oven, with exceptional skills in managing and mastering the use of the oven for high volume
production. Plural form is pizzaioli. Called "pie man" in the U.S. Northeast.
PIZZA BIANCA: Roman leavened flatbread flavored with olive oil and salt.
PIZZA MARGHERITA: Classic Neapolitan pizza. Topped only with tomato, mozzarella
cheese, olive oil, and fresh basil. See also NEAPOLITAN STYLE PIZZA.
PIZZA MARINARA: Also known as Napoletana. A cheeseless pizza topped with
tomato, olive oil, oregano, and fresh garlic. See also NEAPOLITAN STYLE PIZZA.
PIZZA STONE: A flat slab of material, such as a ceramic, clay or other
refractory material, or a lead-free firebrick material (cordierite), or soapstone material, that can
be preheated at high oven temperatures (in excess of 500° F) to permit a pizza to be baked on
it. The pizza stone usually is rectangular or round with a typical thickness of about 1/2 to 7/8
POOLISH: A French term with Polish origins that is used to mean a
preferment that is made with equal amounts of flour and water (which produces a pancake-like batter
with a hydration of 100%), and a small amount of commercial yeast, but no salt. It is usually left
to ferment and ripen at room temperature for several hours, although it is sometimes refrigerated
for many hours (e.g., overnight) before incorporating into the final dough. The term poolish is
POTASSIUM BROMATE: A flour improver that acts as a maturing agent.
Potassium bromate is a strong oxidizer that strengthens dough and prevents it from falling when
handled between proofing and baking yielding higher volume
bread. Please note that potassium bromate has been classified as a carcinogen and has been banned by
the World Health Organization. As a result, many nations, including Canada and those of the European
Union, have banned its use. While not banned in the US, the Center for Science in the Public Interest has
petitioned the FDA to do so. In response, the American Bakers Association, which opposes such a ban, published a statement
saying that potassium bromate is converted to harmless potassium bromide during the baking process.
Flours that are bromated are labeled as such on the packaging.
PRE-BAKE: To partially bake a dough, for a few to several minutes, without
anything on the dough, for the purpose of creating a greater rise in the crust or, in some cases (as
with a cracker-type crust), to allow the crust to dry out before adding sauce, cheeses and other
toppings and completing the baking.
PREFERMENT: A partial preparation of flour and water and yeast
(naturally-occurring or commercial), that may or may not include salt, that is left to ferment and
mature before incorporating into the final dough. The ingredients and period of fermentation are
controlled to achieve the desired leavening power and maturation (ripening) before incorporation
into the final dough. The preferment can be fermented at room temperature or under refrigeration, or
a combination of both. Depending on its final intended use, it can take a liquid form, semi-liquid
form (like a batter) or it can be stiff and dough-like. The benefits from using a preferment include
a strengthened gluten structure, a shortened overall production time, and superior crust flavor.
PROOF: A term often used in bread baking to describe the final rise of the
bread dough while it is in the pan or bread board just prior to baking. The term is often somewhat
erroneously used in the context of pizza doughs to describe the process of fermentation. It is more
correctly applied to the process by which certain doughs, such as deep-dish doughs or Sicilian-style
doughs, are permitted to rise, or "proof", either at room temperature or in a proofing unit (often
with humidity), in advance of dressing and baking.
PROVEL CHEESE: A St. Louis original. A blend of white cheddar, Swiss, and
provolone cheese. Considered the key ingredient in St. Louis-style pizza, most notably Imo's Pizza.
PROVOLONE CHEESE: Provolone, an Italian cheese, is representative of the
pasta filata or stretched curd cheeses. In these stringy-textured cheeses, the curd is cooked
to a relatively high temperature and is pulled and molded while hot into various shapes. The name
provolone is derived from the Neapolitan word "prova," meaning ball-shaped. In the United
States, provolone, except for the addition of special flavor-producing enzymes, is manufactured
similarly to Cheddar up to the time of matting the curd. At this point, the curd for provolone is
cut into slabs that are worked and stretched in hot (180°F) water or whey. The hot curd is kneaded
and stretched either by hand or machine until it becomes shiny, smooth, and elastic. The curd is
molded into various shapes, such as pear, melon, cylinder, sausage, or ball. The shaped curd is then
chilled in cold (50°F) water to harden, and salted for several days in cool brine. After brining,
the cheese is packaged, cured for a few months, and usually smoked. Before selling, the cheese may
be covered with wax or plastic film. Source: National Dairy Council.
PROTEIN: The dominant proteins found in wheat flour are glutenin and gliadin which,
when combined, form gluten. See GLUTEN.
PZ-44 DOUGH CONDITIONER: A blend of whey and L-cysteine, a crystalline
amino acid which is a natural component of protein. PZ-44 dough conditioner is often used in
pizzerias as a dough conditioner helping to produce a more workable pizza dough. Biochemical
reactions of L-cysteine and flour proteins result in shorter mixing time and increased extensibility
(rapid relaxation without fermentation.) See also DOUGH CONDITIONER.
QUARRY TILES: See
RAPID-RISE (OR QUICK-RISE) YEAST: A form of instant dry yeast (IDY).
REINHART (Peter): Chef on Assignment at Johnson and Wales University (a
culinary institute), in Charlotte, NC. Is a consultant to the baking industry and food companies and
a frequent lecturer on baking matters, and a well-known author of cookbooks on bread baking. Is the
author of American Pie: My Search for the Perfect Pizza. For a review of this book, see the
book review section of the pizzamaking.com site.
RELEASE AGENT: A substance which helps prevent an unbaked pizza from
sticking to the make-up board (or pizza peel) so that the pizza will slide off
easily into the
oven. Most people use a dusting of raw white flour
for this purpose,
but semolina flour or cornmeal can also be used. Another trick-of-the-trade is lifting a section of the dough's
edge, blowing an air bubble underneath, then
quickly releasing it before the air can escape.
This air pocket causes the pizza to "float" on
the peel making its release very easy.
REST PERIOD: See AUTOLYSE.
RETARDED DOUGH: See COLD FERMENTATION.
RIPEN: A term commonly applied to certain preferments to describe the
maturation of the preferment, as evidenced by the preferment having achieved a fully risen state
(domed) and on the verge of receding or falling back at the center. In the case of a poolish or
sponge, the ripening is indicated by the presence of small carbon dioxide bubbles at the surface of
the poolish with cracks and signs of collapsing. The term ripen is also sometimes used to refer to a
dough that has fermented to the point where the dough has peaked and should be used before it
overferments and starts to recede or collapse.
ROMANO CHEESE: Romano cheese, an Italian, sharply piquant, grating cheese
resembling Parmesan and other grana cheeses, is manufactured in a similar manner to that described
for Parmesan. Some Romano cheese is made in the United States from cow's milk but most of it is
imported into this country. It is cured for 5 to 12 months or longer. Source: National Dairy
SAN MARZANO TOMATOES: A
famed varietal of tomatoes from the Naples region of Campania,
Italy and grown on vesuvial volcanic soils. The San Marzano tomatoes (the varietal) are elongated,
firm, plum-like tomatoes with fewer seed cavities than most tomatoes. They also have a naturally
low-acid content. The San Marzano tomatoes sold in cans may or may not bear the D.O.P. designation.
However, those that do will have a special numbered label, and will indicate the region around
Naples, such as the Agro Sarnese-Nocerino region, where the San Marzano tomatoes were grown. Cans
not bearing the D.O.P. label may be of questionable provenance.
SCREEN: A round, expanded, metal (usually aluminum) screen with a beaded
outer rim. Because of the open character of the screen, air circulating beneath a pizza
placed on the screen can readily permeate the screen and provide uniform baking of the pizza
and browning of the bottom of the crust. Pizza screens come in a wide variety of sizes, from
about 6 inches to over 20 inches. Although pizza screens are usually round, they also come in
SEA SALT: A form of salt formed from evaporation of seawater at ordinary
atmospheric temperature and pressure and then harvested. It has a larger particle size than ordinary
table salt, and can come in different particle size gradations, including very coarse, which may
require grinding in a mill or mortar and pestle before using for applications requiring small
particle size, such as pizza dough making (although it can be used as a condiment on top of a
finished pizza). Sea salts include naturally occurring beneficial minerals such as calcium and
magnesium and are free of additives, such as anti-caking and anti-clumping chemicals and dextrose,
as are commonly added, along with iodide (usually potassium iodide), to ordinary table salts. In the
context of pizza dough, Sicilian sea salts are considered by some to be particularly useful because
of their high hygroscopicity capacity (their capacity to absorb water).
SEMOLINA FLOUR: A coarse, granular flour product with bright yellow color
produced by milling durum wheat, a high-protein, high-gluten wheat. A typical protein content for
semolina flour is around 12–13%. The semolina flour is available in coarse and fine grades. It is
frequently combined with other flours, at a rate of up to 25%, to produce a chewy finished crust.
SHEETING: The act of rolling dough into a very thin and uniform sheet.
Most commonly performed using a specialized machine known as a dough sheeter or dough roller.
A rolling pin may also be used, but this technique can be slow and labor-intensive.
SIR LANCELOT FLOUR:
King Arthur's Sir Lancelot (KASL) flour is a
high-quality, high protein, high-gluten flour
produced by the King Arthur Flour Company based in Norwich,
Vermont. This flour is available in large
quantities (50-lb. bags) from various bakery
distributors, foodservice companies and other
intermediaries, some of whom will sell to
individuals on a cash-and-carry basis (the KASL
flour is not presently sold at
the retail level.) The KASL is made from 100% hard red spring wheat, is malted to increase
enzyme performance, and has a protein level of 14.2% ± 2%, an ash level of 0.52% ± 0.02%, and an
absorption rate of 63% ± 2%. The KASL tolerates a long dough fermentation time and will exhibit
greater browning and chewiness in the finished crust than other flours. These characteristics of the
flour make it especially suitable for thin New York style pizzas. Because of its high gluten
content, King Arthur does not recommend hand kneading doughs made from the KASL.
See also KING ARTHUR FLOUR COMPANY.
SKIN: A term of art used by pizza makers to describe a dough round that
has been shaped and stretched or rolled out from a dough ball into a pizza round (or other shape) in
preparation for dressing and baking.
SLACK DOUGH: An overly wet dough with no elasticity or spring-back.
SOURDOUGH: See LEVAIN.
SPONGE: A preferment similar to a poolish or biga. It can include part of
the flour and yeast and all or a part of the water to be used in the final dough, and is combined
with additional flour, water, yeast and salt to make the final dough. The sponge can be allowed to
ferment and mature (ripen) at room temperature, under refrigeration, or a combination of both.
STANISLAUS FOOD PRODUCTS: Producer of super-premium "fresh pack" tomato
products, considered to be one of the best
in the industry. Some popular Stanislaus brands
include Saporito, Full Red, and 7/11. Used
exclusively by reputable pizzerias around the
country. Stanislaus' product line is similar to
that of rival Escalon Premier Brands (see
Escalon/Stanislaus Cross Reference table.) See also rival
ESCALON PREMIER BRANDS.
STARTER: See PREFERMENT.
STIFF DOUGH: An overly dry dough (less than 50% water) which is dense and nonelastic.
STONE: See PIZZA STONE.
STUFFED STYLE PIZZA: Some people confuse a stuffed pizza with Chicago
style. While they may look similar, they are quite different. Stuffed pizzas start with a medium
thick dough/crust and then some sauce, toppings and a layer of cheese are added. A separate (much
thinner) layer of dough is then placed on top of the toppings and then given another, and greater,
application of sauce and cheese on top of the pizza. This creates a lasagna-like pie. Cook times on
this style are usually in the 30-minute range. Source:
TARE: The weight of a container or wrapper that is deducted from the gross
weight to obtain net weight. Most digital scales allow you to perform this task easily by placing
the empty container on the scale and pressing the tare button. Then, when the container is filled,
only the weight of its contents is displayed.
THICK STYLE PIZZA: Thick style pizzas are really nothing more than a
thicker version of a thin crust pizza. They are usually baked on a screen, disk, or directly on the
oven hearth. The height or thickness of this style of pizza is achieved through both greater dough
weight and some proofing, though not as much proofing as is given to the pan style thick crust
varieties. Immediately after proofing, the dough is sauced and topped in the usual manner and taken
to the oven for baking. The finished pizzas have moderate thickness, a slightly crispy bottom
texture and a moderately chewy eating characteristic. This type of pizza does not have a regional
preference, but it is instead, found served throughout the entire U.S. Source:
THICKNESS FACTOR: A number often used within the pizza industry to
correspond to a particular pizza crust thickness, from "thin" to "medium" to
"thick". The thickness factor is used in a mathematical expression to calculate the amount
of dough that is needed to make a pizza of any given size (diameter) and desired thickness. The thickness
factor of an existing dough can also be calculated from the weight of the dough and the size of pizza made
from that dough. Typical values of thickness factors for "thin", "medium" and
"thick" crusts are 0.10, 0.11, and 0.12–0.13, respectively. Thickness factors for deep-dish
doughs will usually be higher (above 0.13).and for cracker-type or other thin crusts they will often be lower
TILES: Unglazed, fired, quarry clay tiles used in arrangements of one or
more layers on an oven rack or grill for use as an alternative to pizza stones for baking pizzas.
The tiles are most commonly found in ceramic tile stores or home improvement stores (such as Home
Depot and Lowe's, with typical sizes of 6″ × 6″, 8″ × 8″ or 4″ × 8″
(and generally about 1/2″ thick). Since food is to be cooked on the tiles, for health reasons
it is very important that the tiles be unglazed.
THIN STYLE PIZZA: A thin crust style pizza dough is mixed until it is
smooth and then stretched by hand. The texture of a true thin crust is crispy on the outside, yet
soft inside. This style of pizza has been traditionally found in taverns and bars because they allow
the customer to eat without being filled up on dough. The toppings and cheese are modestly applied
and not piled up high and a thinner sauce usually works best. Source:
VWG: See VITAL WHEAT GLUTEN.
VITAL WHEAT GLUTEN (VWG): A dried wheat protein of high-gluten, hard wheat
grain that has had all of the starch removed and is then dried. It is frequently used to supplement
other flours to increase the overall protein level of such flours. Vital wheat gluten has a typical
gluten content of about 45% and a protein content of about 75%. Its recommended use is at the rate
of 1 to 2 teaspoons for each cup of flour or 2–3% by weight of flour. Each 1% addition of vital
wheat gluten increases the protein content of the flour to which it is added by 0.6%.
VITAMIN C: See ASCORBIC ACID.
YEAST: A living, microscopic, single-cell organism that, as it feeds,
converts sugars and starches into alcohol and carbon dioxide (known as fermentation.) This trapped
carbon dioxide gas is what causes doughs to rise, or leaven. See also LEVAIN, ACTIVE DRY
YEAST, INSTANT DRY YEAST, and COMPRESSED YEAST.