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Author Topic: How do certain dough ingredients affect the dough and crust?  (Read 8094 times)

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Offline tedcholl

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Is there a good resource to understand the impact of ingredients to the final outcome of the dough/crust?   Such as salt, sugar, ADY vs instant, egg, oil, etc?
I'm trying to understand how I may want to modify a recipe to get what I want as the final product but I don't understand the impact of those ingredients and how they impact the final crust.  Thanks in advance!

Offline dmcavanagh

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Rest In Peace - November 1, 2014

Offline The Dough Doctor

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Re: How do certain dough ingredients affect the dough and crust?
« Reply #2 on: May 12, 2014, 08:23:31 AM »
Ted;
I just recently discussed these very topics, but here it is in a nutshell.
Flour: As protein content goes up, the dough becomes ever more elastic which, in some cases can also impact the finished crust by making it tougher or more chewy. As the protein content goes up so does the potential for crispiness. Just the opposite is true when the protein content goes down.
Salt: Salt is multi functional, it enhances flavor, strengthens the dough, and controls the rate of fermentation.
Sugar: Provides nutrient for the yeast to feed upon, provides for a sweet taste to the finished crust, and provides additional crust color.
Eggs: Provides a level of richness to the finished crust if used at a sufficiently high level (5% of the flour weight), may improve the nutritional properties of the finished crust, imparts greater crust color.
Milk: Provides additional crust color to the crust, may improve nutritional value of the crust if used at a sufficiently high level (5% and above), can help to strengthen the dough, making it more elastic, unless buttermilk is used there is very little flavor impact from using milk.
Oil/Fat: Fat helps to provide lubrication to the dough making it more extensible, it also helps to repel the migration of moisture into the dough from the sauce/toppings, at higher levels (above 3% of the flour weight) it can have a tenderizing effect upon the crust making it more tender to eat, it can have a slight impact on finished crust color making it a little more golden in color, it can have a significant impact on flavor of the crust by both helping to retain volatile flavors released during baking and by imparting its own unique flavor. When used IN a pan such as for deep-dish pizzas oil will impart a fried characteristic to the crust while shortening or any solid fat will impart a more bread like crust characteristic, fat can also improve oven spring through both lubricating the dough and by helping to seal the gas cells for better expansion properties, and fat can also improve the perceived richness of the finished crust (people like fat).
ADY/IDY/Compressed Yeast: These are different forms of "baker's yeast" and when used at the correct level, or substitution level they all provide essentially identical performance and flavor characteristics.
Water: Hydrates the ingredients, especially the flour where it allows for the development of gluten from the flour. It is used to adjust the viscosity of the dough to facilitate handling, baking, and finished crust characteristics. A softer dough that has a greater hydration level will expand more easily during baking resulting in a lighter, more crispy crust characteristic, a lower hydration will reduce the expansion during baking resulting in a more dense, possibly chewier finished crust characteristic.
I might have missed a couple, but those are the main ingredient functions.
Tom Lehmann/The Dough Doctor

Offline 9slicePie

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Re: How do certain dough ingredients affect the dough and crust?
« Reply #3 on: August 12, 2014, 10:21:38 AM »
Ted;
I just recently discussed these very topics, but here it is in a nutshell.
Flour: As protein content goes up, the dough becomes ever more elastic which, in some cases can also impact the finished crust by making it tougher or more chewy. As the protein content goes up so does the potential for crispiness. Just the opposite is true when the protein content goes down.
Salt: Salt is multi functional, it enhances flavor, strengthens the dough, and controls the rate of fermentation.
Sugar: Provides nutrient for the yeast to feed upon, provides for a sweet taste to the finished crust, and provides additional crust color.
Eggs: Provides a level of richness to the finished crust if used at a sufficiently high level (5% of the flour weight), may improve the nutritional properties of the finished crust, imparts greater crust color.
Milk: Provides additional crust color to the crust, may improve nutritional value of the crust if used at a sufficiently high level (5% and above), can help to strengthen the dough, making it more elastic, unless buttermilk is used there is very little flavor impact from using milk.
Oil/Fat: Fat helps to provide lubrication to the dough making it more extensible, it also helps to repel the migration of moisture into the dough from the sauce/toppings, at higher levels (above 3% of the flour weight) it can have a tenderizing effect upon the crust making it more tender to eat, it can have a slight impact on finished crust color making it a little more golden in color, it can have a significant impact on flavor of the crust by both helping to retain volatile flavors released during baking and by imparting its own unique flavor. When used IN a pan such as for deep-dish pizzas oil will impart a fried characteristic to the crust while shortening or any solid fat will impart a more bread like crust characteristic, fat can also improve oven spring through both lubricating the dough and by helping to seal the gas cells for better expansion properties, and fat can also improve the perceived richness of the finished crust (people like fat).
ADY/IDY/Compressed Yeast: These are different forms of "baker's yeast" and when used at the correct level, or substitution level they all provide essentially identical performance and flavor characteristics.
Water: Hydrates the ingredients, especially the flour where it allows for the development of gluten from the flour. It is used to adjust the viscosity of the dough to facilitate handling, baking, and finished crust characteristics. A softer dough that has a greater hydration level will expand more easily during baking resulting in a lighter, more crispy crust characteristic, a lower hydration will reduce the expansion during baking resulting in a more dense, possibly chewier finished crust characteristic.
I might have missed a couple, but those are the main ingredient functions.
Tom Lehmann/The Dough Doctor
wow, thanks for that in-depth post!

Offline ckreef

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Re: How do certain dough ingredients affect the dough and crust?
« Reply #4 on: September 03, 2014, 08:23:58 AM »
Ted;
I just recently discussed these very topics, but here it is in a nutshell.
Flour: As protein content goes up, the dough becomes ever more elastic which, in some cases can also impact the finished crust by making it tougher or more chewy. As the protein content goes up so does the potential for crispiness. Just the opposite is true when the protein content goes down.
Salt: Salt is multi functional, it enhances flavor, strengthens the dough, and controls the rate of fermentation.
Sugar: Provides nutrient for the yeast to feed upon, provides for a sweet taste to the finished crust, and provides additional crust color.
Eggs: Provides a level of richness to the finished crust if used at a sufficiently high level (5% of the flour weight), may improve the nutritional properties of the finished crust, imparts greater crust color.
Milk: Provides additional crust color to the crust, may improve nutritional value of the crust if used at a sufficiently high level (5% and above), can help to strengthen the dough, making it more elastic, unless buttermilk is used there is very little flavor impact from using milk.
Oil/Fat: Fat helps to provide lubrication to the dough making it more extensible, it also helps to repel the migration of moisture into the dough from the sauce/toppings, at higher levels (above 3% of the flour weight) it can have a tenderizing effect upon the crust making it more tender to eat, it can have a slight impact on finished crust color making it a little more golden in color, it can have a significant impact on flavor of the crust by both helping to retain volatile flavors released during baking and by imparting its own unique flavor. When used IN a pan such as for deep-dish pizzas oil will impart a fried characteristic to the crust while shortening or any solid fat will impart a more bread like crust characteristic, fat can also improve oven spring through both lubricating the dough and by helping to seal the gas cells for better expansion properties, and fat can also improve the perceived richness of the finished crust (people like fat).
ADY/IDY/Compressed Yeast: These are different forms of "baker's yeast" and when used at the correct level, or substitution level they all provide essentially identical performance and flavor characteristics.
Water: Hydrates the ingredients, especially the flour where it allows for the development of gluten from the flour. It is used to adjust the viscosity of the dough to facilitate handling, baking, and finished crust characteristics. A softer dough that has a greater hydration level will expand more easily during baking resulting in a lighter, more crispy crust characteristic, a lower hydration will reduce the expansion during baking resulting in a more dense, possibly chewier finished crust characteristic.
I might have missed a couple, but those are the main ingredient functions.
Tom Lehmann/The Dough Doctor

TY - that is exactly the type of information I was looking for when I joined this forum a few minutes ago.

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Offline ErinM

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Re: How do certain dough ingredients affect the dough and crust?
« Reply #5 on: September 10, 2014, 03:32:05 AM »
Thanks Tom Lehmann, nice job.

Is flour fineness worth adding to the list? '00' ? Cheers.

Offline ckreef

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Re: How do certain dough ingredients affect the dough and crust?
« Reply #6 on: September 10, 2014, 04:41:41 AM »
Thanks Tom Lehmann, nice job.

Is flour fineness worth adding to the list? '00' ? Cheers.

And what happens if you sift AP flour?  Does it turn into '00'?

Offline The Dough Doctor

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Re: How do certain dough ingredients affect the dough and crust?
« Reply #7 on: September 16, 2014, 02:00:14 PM »
CK;
Sifted flour is exactly the same as unsifted flour with the exception of the density of the flour. A cup (or any volumetric portion) of sifted flour will weigh less than the same volume/portion of unsifted flour due the the difference in density resulting from sifting. In some applications, especially in making cakes, sifted flour is called for to prevent development of lumps of flour in the batter, in angel food cakes it is almost mandatory due to the fact that the flour is just folded into the whipped egg whites so there is no mixing to smooth out any flour clumps. In making bread and pizza doughs it doesn't make any difference so long as the flour is weighed, but do keep in mind if you are using a "recipe" that calls for X number of cups of sifted flour you should use sifted flour or the weight of flour that you are adding will be incorrect, same for unsifted.
Tom Lehmann/The Dough Doctor

Offline ckreef

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Re: How do certain dough ingredients affect the dough and crust?
« Reply #8 on: September 16, 2014, 03:02:00 PM »
CK;
Sifted flour is exactly the same as unsifted flour with the exception of the density of the flour. A cup (or any volumetric portion) of sifted flour will weigh less than the same volume/portion of unsifted flour due the the difference in density resulting from sifting. In some applications, especially in making cakes, sifted flour is called for to prevent development of lumps of flour in the batter, in angel food cakes it is almost mandatory due to the fact that the flour is just folded into the whipped egg whites so there is no mixing to smooth out any flour clumps. In making bread and pizza doughs it doesn't make any difference so long as the flour is weighed, but do keep in mind if you are using a "recipe" that calls for X number of cups of sifted flour you should use sifted flour or the weight of flour that you are adding will be incorrect, same for unsifted.
Tom Lehmann/The Dough Doctor

TY

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