3. For a long time I have been trying to find out how makers of cake mixes and powdered pizza mixes like Duncan Hines and Martha White blend in the partially hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oil. I was using shortening and cutting it into the flour. I don't think earlier posts mentioned soybean oil.
The shortening (crisco) is blended into the flour until the shortening is in very fine particles coated with the dry mix. The particle size is important and greatly affects texture. I make homemade baking mix this way all the time. It just looks like dry pancake mix. The easiest way is to use a KitchenAid with a whip attachment but I have more control if I use a pastry blender (cutter).
In the case of using either liquid oil or liquid shortening, there are a couple of ways to do this
One way is to chill or freeze the oil until solid or semi solid and incorporate like shortening. All other ingredients should be chilled as well as work bowl and utensils.
The other way is to drip the oil, drop by drop, into the dry mixture while it is being stirred, preferably in a mixer.
Palm oil is naturally a solid fat without any hydrogenation. I canít recall what temperature its melting point is.
Also keep in mind that, in the industry, there are hard shortening flakes, (typically made of palm) that are meant to be used to develop flakey layers in pastries.